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Open AccessReview

Constructed Wetlands in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Review of Experiences during the Last Decade

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Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
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Aarhus University Centre for Water Technology WATEC, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, Building 1521, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
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Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies AIAS, Aarhus University, Hoegh-Guldbergs Gade 6B, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(6), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061744
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
The review aims to report the state-of-the-art constructed wetlands (CW) in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region not limited to national and local conditions. The aim is with a broader view, to bring updated and sufficient information, to facilitate the use of the CW technology in the different countries of LAC. Thus, 520 experiences extracted from the 169 reviewed documents in 20 countries were analyzed. According to the data, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands are the most reported CW in the region (62%), the second most common CW technology in the region is free water surface CW (17%), then vertical flow systems (9%), followed by intensified constructed wetlands (8%), and finally French systems (4%). The performance for nutrient removal is analyzed, finding that the mean of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies varies from 65% to 83%, 55% to 72%, and 30% to 84%, respectively. The results suggest a generally good performance for COD and TN removal, but a low performance for TP removal. Regarding plant species used for CWs, 114 different plant species were reported, being until now the most extensive report about plant species used in CWs in the LAC region. View Full-Text
Keywords: constructed wetlands; Latin America and Caribbean; nature-based solutions; wastewater treatment; state-of-the-art constructed wetlands; Latin America and Caribbean; nature-based solutions; wastewater treatment; state-of-the-art
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Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A.; Konnerup, D.; Brix, H.; Arias, C.A. Constructed Wetlands in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Review of Experiences during the Last Decade. Water 2020, 12, 1744.

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