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Constructed Wetlands for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment in Hot and Arid Climates: Opportunities, Challenges and Case Studies in the Middle East

School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Crete, Greece
Water 2020, 12(6), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061665
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 20 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
Many countries and regions around the world are facing a continuously growing pressure on their limited freshwater resources, particularly those under hot and arid climates. Higher water demand than availability led to over-abstraction and deterioration of the available freshwater resources’ quality. In this context, wastewater, if properly treated, can represent a new water source added in the local water balance, particularly in regions of Colorado, California, Australia, China and in the wide region of the Middle East, which is characterized as one of most water-stressed regions in the world. This article summarizes the status of wastewater treatment and management in the Middle East and discusses the challenges, the various barriers and also the opportunities that arise by introducing the sustainable technology of Constructed Wetlands in the region. Furthermore, the aim of the article is to provide a better insight into the possibility and feasibility of a wider implementation of this green technology under the hot and arid climate of Middle East by presenting several successful case studies of operating Constructed Wetlands facilities in the region for the treatment of various wastewater sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: constructed wetlands; hot and arid climate; wastewater treatment; industrial wastewater; municipal wastewater; sludge treatment wetlands; Middle East constructed wetlands; hot and arid climate; wastewater treatment; industrial wastewater; municipal wastewater; sludge treatment wetlands; Middle East
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stefanakis, A.I. Constructed Wetlands for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment in Hot and Arid Climates: Opportunities, Challenges and Case Studies in the Middle East. Water 2020, 12, 1665. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061665

AMA Style

Stefanakis AI. Constructed Wetlands for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment in Hot and Arid Climates: Opportunities, Challenges and Case Studies in the Middle East. Water. 2020; 12(6):1665. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061665

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stefanakis, Alexandros I. 2020. "Constructed Wetlands for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment in Hot and Arid Climates: Opportunities, Challenges and Case Studies in the Middle East" Water 12, no. 6: 1665. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061665

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