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Article

Multivariate Monitoring of Surface Water Quality: Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and 3D Fluorescence Characterization

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Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Balamand, PO Box: 100 Tripoli, Koura, Lebanon
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Institut de Chimie des milieux et des matériaux de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7285, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Poitiers (ENSIP), University of Poitiers, CEDEX 9, 86073 Poitiers, France
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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, PO Box: 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar, Lebanon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present/permanent address: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, PO Box: 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar, Lebanon.
Water 2020, 12(6), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061673
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
The primary objective of this study is to explore a water quality database on two Mediterranean rivers (the Kadisha-Abou Ali and El Jaouz rivers—located in north Lebanon), considering their physicochemical, microbiological and fluorescence characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the matrix gathering physicochemical and microbiological data while the Common Components and Specific Weight Analysis (CCSWA) or ComDim was used for fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). This approach provided complementary and valuable information regarding water quality in such complex ecosystem. As highlighted by the PCA and ComDim scores, the Kadisha-Abou Ali River is highly influenced by anthropogenic activities because its watershed districts are intensively populated. This influence reveals the implication of organic and bacteriological parameters. To the contrary, the El Jaouz watershed is less inhabited and is characterized by mineral parameters, which determines its water quality. This work highlighted the relationship between fluorescence EEMs and major water quality parameters, enabling the selection of reliable water quality indicators for the studied rivers. The proposed methodology can surely be generalized to the monitoring of surface water quality in other rivers. Each customized water quality fingerprint should constantly be inspected in order to account for any emerging pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: PCA; ComDim; fluorescence EEMs; monitoring; Lebanon; surface water quality; water mass reference PCA; ComDim; fluorescence EEMs; monitoring; Lebanon; surface water quality; water mass reference
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daou, C.; El Hoz, M.; Kassouf, A.; Legube, B. Multivariate Monitoring of Surface Water Quality: Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and 3D Fluorescence Characterization. Water 2020, 12, 1673. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061673

AMA Style

Daou C, El Hoz M, Kassouf A, Legube B. Multivariate Monitoring of Surface Water Quality: Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and 3D Fluorescence Characterization. Water. 2020; 12(6):1673. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061673

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daou, Claude, Mervat El Hoz, Amine Kassouf, and Bernard Legube. 2020. "Multivariate Monitoring of Surface Water Quality: Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and 3D Fluorescence Characterization" Water 12, no. 6: 1673. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061673

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