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Open AccessArticle

Identification of Key Factors Affecting the Trophic State of Four Tropical Small Water Bodies

1
Posgrado en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Ciudad Universitaria 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, Mexico
2
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. de los Barrios No. 1, Los Reyes Iztacala, C.P. 54090, Tlalnepantla, Estado de México, Mexico
3
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051454
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 16 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functioning of Small Water Bodies)
Due to their dimensions, small and shallow water bodies are more sensitive to changes in nutrient load, water flow, and human management. The four water bodies studied are small (area <0.01 km2), constantly supplied by a non-anthropogenic source of nutrients, and these water bodies present different trophic states: mesotrophic, eutrophic, and hyper-eutrophic. The objective of this study was to identify the key environmental factors that created differences in the trophic state of these adjacent shallow urban lakes by modeling chlorophyll-a (Chl a) through the application of the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). The models (n = 36) explain 45.8–60.6% (R2), and predicts 39–52.9% (Q2) of the variance. Environmental variables were identified in the water bodies as critical factors of trophic state determination, water residence time (WRT), ions (e.g., Ca2+), and minerals as hydroxyapatite (HAP). These variables were related to processes that could improve trophic conditions, such as flushing and phosphorous precipitation. Conversely, N-NH3 concentration was associated with nutrient recycling, and found to be able to promote eutrophication. View Full-Text
Keywords: eutrophication; trophic state; shallow lakes; nutrients; PLSR eutrophication; trophic state; shallow lakes; nutrients; PLSR
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Cuevas Madrid, H.; Lugo Vázquez, A.; Peralta Soriano, L.; Morlán Mejía, J.; Vilaclara Fatjó, G.; Sánchez Rodríguez, M.R.; Escobar Oliva, M.A.; Carmona Jiménez, J. Identification of Key Factors Affecting the Trophic State of Four Tropical Small Water Bodies. Water 2020, 12, 1454.

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