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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Effect of Human Impact on the Water Quality and Biocoenoses of the Soft Water Lake with Isoetids: Lake Jeleń, NW Poland

1
Deparment of Water Protection, Adam Mickiewicz University, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-642 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Limnology, University of Gdańsk, Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Limnological Station University of Gdańsk, 83-323 Kamienica Szlachecka, Poland
4
Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040945 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality of Freshwater Ecosystems in a Temperate Climate)
Soft water lakes with isoetids (SLI) are ecosystems prone to degradation due to the low buffer capacity of their waters. One of the main threats resulting from human impact is eutrophication due to agriculture, catchment urbanization and recreational use. In this paper, changes in the water chemistry and transformation of biocoenoses of one of the largest Polish SLI, Lake Jeleń, over the past 30 years are presented. The lake is located within the borders of a city, and a significant part of its catchment is under agriculture and recreation use. The physicochemical (concentration of nutrients, organic matter, electrical conductivity, oxygen saturation and water pH) and biological parameters (macrophytes and phytoplankton) were measured in summer 1991, 2004, 2013 and 2018. Since the beginning of the 1990s, a gradual increase in the trophy of the lake has been observed as indicated by increased nutrient availability, deterioration of oxygen conditions and a decrease in water transparency. The alterations of water chemistry induce biological transformations, in particular, an increase in phytoplankton abundance (4-fold increase of biomass in epilimnion) as well as a gradual reduction in the range of the phytolittoral (from 10 to 6 m), a decrease in the frequency of isoetids, Lobelia dortmanna and Isoetes lacustris, and expansion of plant species characteristic for eutrophy.
Keywords: soft water lake; water quality; Lobelia dortmanna; Littorella uniflora; Isoëtes lacustris; eutrophication; catchment; human impact soft water lake; water quality; Lobelia dortmanna; Littorella uniflora; Isoëtes lacustris; eutrophication; catchment; human impact
MDPI and ACS Style

Klimaszyk, P.; Borowiak, D.; Piotrowicz, R.; Rosińska, J.; Szeląg-Wasielewska, E.; Kraska, M. The Effect of Human Impact on the Water Quality and Biocoenoses of the Soft Water Lake with Isoetids: Lake Jeleń, NW Poland. Water 2020, 12, 945.

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