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Open AccessArticle

The Selection of Rain Gauges and Rainfall Parameters in Estimating Intensity-Duration Thresholds for Landslide Occurrence: Case Study from Wayanad (India)

1
Discipline of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 453552, India
2
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via Giorgio La Pira, 4, 50121 Florence, Italy
3
Centre for Advanced Modelling and Geospatial Information Systems (CAMGIS), Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney P.O. Box 123, Australia
4
Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Choongmu-gwan, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041000
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 30 March 2020 / Accepted: 31 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
Recurring landslides in the Western Ghats have become an important concern for authorities, considering the recent disasters that occurred during the 2018 and 2019 monsoons. Wayanad is one of the highly affected districts in Kerala State (India), where landslides have become a threat to lives and properties. Rainfall is the major factor which triggers landslides in this region, and hence, an early warning system could be developed based on empirical rainfall thresholds considering the relationship between rainfall events and their potential to initiate landslides. As an initial step in achieving this goal, a detailed study was conducted to develop a regional scale rainfall threshold for the area using intensity and duration conditions, using the landslides that occurred during the years from 2010 to 2018. Detailed analyses were conducted in order to select the most effective method for choosing a reference rain gauge and rainfall event associated with the occurrence of landslides. The study ponders the effect of the selection of rainfall parameters for this data-sparse region by considering four different approaches. First, a regional scale threshold was defined using the nearest rain gauge. The second approach was achieved by selecting the most extreme rainfall event recorded in the area, irrespective of the location of landslide and rain gauge. Third, the classical definition of intensity was modified from average intensity to peak daily intensity measured by the nearest rain gauge. In the last approach, four different local scale thresholds were defined, exploring the possibility of developing a threshold for a uniform meteo-hydro-geological condition instead of merging the data and developing a regional scale threshold. All developed thresholds were then validated and empirically compared to find the best suited approach for the study area. From the analysis, it was observed that the approach selecting the rain gauge based on the most extreme rainfall parameters performed better than the other approaches. The results are useful in understanding the sensitivity of Intensity–Duration threshold models to some boundary conditions such as rain gauge selection, the intensity definition and the strategy of subdividing the area into independent alert zones. The results were discussed with perspective on a future application in a regional scale Landslide Early Warning System (LEWS) and on further improvements needed for this objective. View Full-Text
Keywords: landslides; thresholds; Wayanad; early warning; GIS; rainfall intensity landslides; thresholds; Wayanad; early warning; GIS; rainfall intensity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abraham, M.T.; Satyam, N.; Rosi, A.; Pradhan, B.; Segoni, S. The Selection of Rain Gauges and Rainfall Parameters in Estimating Intensity-Duration Thresholds for Landslide Occurrence: Case Study from Wayanad (India). Water 2020, 12, 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041000

AMA Style

Abraham MT, Satyam N, Rosi A, Pradhan B, Segoni S. The Selection of Rain Gauges and Rainfall Parameters in Estimating Intensity-Duration Thresholds for Landslide Occurrence: Case Study from Wayanad (India). Water. 2020; 12(4):1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abraham, Minu T.; Satyam, Neelima; Rosi, Ascanio; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Segoni, Samuele. 2020. "The Selection of Rain Gauges and Rainfall Parameters in Estimating Intensity-Duration Thresholds for Landslide Occurrence: Case Study from Wayanad (India)" Water 12, no. 4: 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041000

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