This study developed a new type of micro-pressure swirl reactor (MPSR) for treating rural domestic sewage with variable water volume in northern China. The transformation of a traditional aeration tank to MPSR was mainly divided into three steps. Firstly, the aeration device was installed on one side of the aeration tank. Secondly, most of the top cover plate was sealed. Finally, the liquid level-lifting zone was set to achieve micro-pressure. The study measured the flow velocity and dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution in the main reaction zone of MPSR, studied the effects of MPSR sewage treatment in continuous operation mode and sequential batch operation mode, and analyzed the main microbial species. The experimental results showed that a stable circular circle flow and a spatial DO gradient in MPSR were formed when the aeration rate of MPSR was 0.2 m3
/h. Through the MPSR sewage treatment experiment in two operation modes, it could meet the current requirements of rural environmental pollution controlled in China. Analysis of the types of microorganisms showed that microorganisms with different functions gathered in different zones of the MPSR due to the different dissolved oxygen environment and water flow environment, which further improved the ability of MPSR to simultaneously remove nitrogen and phosphorus.
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