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Article

Temperature and Consolidation Sensing Near Drinking Water Wells Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

1
Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
2
Optical Sciences, University of Twente, Hallenweg 23, 7522 NH Enschede, The Netherlands
3
Mathematical and Statistical Methods—Biometris, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3572; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123572
Received: 13 November 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Drinking water wells require continuous monitoring to prevent groundwater-related issues such as pollution, clogging and overdrafting. In this research, optical fibers with fiber Bragg grating sensors were placed in an aquifer to explore their potential use in long-term well monitoring. Fiber Bragg grating sensors were simultaneously sensitive to consolidation strain and temperature, and these two responses were separated by creating autoregressive consolidation models. Consolidation responses from these multiple sensors were rescaled to obtain pressure distribution along the depth. Pressure and temperature data showed impermeable soil layers and locations where groundwater accumulated. Time development of temperature along the fiber revealed oxidation of minerals and soil layers with varying permeability. Fiber Bragg grating sensors are useful tools to examine subsurface processes near wells and they can show the first signs of clogging. View Full-Text
Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; ARX model; temperature; consolidation; well monitoring; subsurface iron removal; clogging fiber Bragg grating; ARX model; temperature; consolidation; well monitoring; subsurface iron removal; clogging
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: https://doi.org/10.4121/c.5099669.v1
MDPI and ACS Style

Drusová, S.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Keesman, K.J.; Offerhaus, H.L. Temperature and Consolidation Sensing Near Drinking Water Wells Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Water 2020, 12, 3572. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123572

AMA Style

Drusová S, Wagterveld RM, Keesman KJ, Offerhaus HL. Temperature and Consolidation Sensing Near Drinking Water Wells Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Water. 2020; 12(12):3572. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123572

Chicago/Turabian Style

Drusová, Sandra; Wagterveld, R. M.; Keesman, Karel J.; Offerhaus, Herman L. 2020. "Temperature and Consolidation Sensing Near Drinking Water Wells Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors" Water 12, no. 12: 3572. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123572

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