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Review

Baseline Water Temperature: Estimation of the Annual Cycle of Surface Water Temperature in Lakes in North-Central Poland over the 1951–1968 Period

Hydroacoustic Laboratory, Stanisaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute, Oczapowskiego 10, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Water 2020, 12(12), 3574; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123574
Received: 3 December 2020 / Revised: 16 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Water temperature is an important ecological variable that affects the functioning of lakes. Unfortunately, for many lakes there are no long-term observations enabling the assessment of changes in water temperatures. This makes it difficult to include this aspect in research into the biology, ecology and chemistry of such lakes. This paper presents a literature review related to changes of surface water temperatures in lakes and in particular describing the response of water temperatures and stratification to changing climate in Polish lakes. On this basis, a model based on the available data on water temperature in 931 Polish lakes in the years 1951–1968 was proposed, which allows to estimate the baseline water temperature on any day of the year. This model is calculated using the complementary error peak function on the 0–3 m water temperature dataset, which provides the best reduction of diurnal temperature fluctuations. It can be an alternative to the average temperature of surface waters, which are calculated on the basis of systematically collected data. Based on the average water temperature data obtained from 56 thermal profiles in 10 lakes in 2010–2019, the equation was analogically calculated. The average monthly water temperatures in June, July, August and September and the change in water temperature (0.24–0.30 °C decade−1) in the period 1951–1968/2010–2019 were estimated then. Similar regional or single lake trends have been found in studies by other authors covering a similar or longer period of time. The proposed method, which is suitable for simulating temperatures, especially in summer, enables the determination of the value of changes in surface water temperature in Polish lakes when only thermal profiles data from different dates are available, which can be especially helpful when analyzing hydrobiological results. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; lakes; surface water temperature; annual cycle climate change; lakes; surface water temperature; annual cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hutorowicz, A. Baseline Water Temperature: Estimation of the Annual Cycle of Surface Water Temperature in Lakes in North-Central Poland over the 1951–1968 Period. Water 2020, 12, 3574. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123574

AMA Style

Hutorowicz A. Baseline Water Temperature: Estimation of the Annual Cycle of Surface Water Temperature in Lakes in North-Central Poland over the 1951–1968 Period. Water. 2020; 12(12):3574. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123574

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hutorowicz, Andrzej. 2020. "Baseline Water Temperature: Estimation of the Annual Cycle of Surface Water Temperature in Lakes in North-Central Poland over the 1951–1968 Period" Water 12, no. 12: 3574. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123574

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