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Open AccessArticle

A Pilot Study Combining Ultrafiltration with Ozonation for the Treatment of Secondary Urban Wastewater: Organic Micropollutants, Microbial Load and Biological Effects

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Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
LEPABE—Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF—Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
4
LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
5
Adventech-Advanced Environmental Technologies, Centro Empresarial e Tecnológico, Rua de Fundões 151, 3700-121 São João da Madeira, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3458; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123458
Received: 8 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 6 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
Ozonation followed by ultrafiltration (O3 + UF) was employed at pilot scale for the treatment of secondary urban wastewater, envisaging its safe reuse for crop irrigation. Chemical contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and priority substances (PSs), microbial load, estrogenic activity, cell viability and cellular metabolic activity were measured before and immediately after O3 + UF treatment. The microbial load was also evaluated after one-week storage of the treated water to assess potential bacteria regrowth. Among the organic micropollutants detected, only citalopram and isoproturon were not removed below the limit of quantification. The treatment was also effective in the reduction in the bacterial loads considering current legislation in water quality for irrigation (i.e., in terms of enterobacteria and nematode eggs). However, after seven days of storage, total heterotrophs regrew to levels close to the initial, with the concomitant increase in the genes 16S rRNA and intI1. The assessment of biological effects revealed similar water quality before and after treatment, meaning that O3 + UF did not produce detectable toxic by-products. Thus, the findings of this study indicate that the wastewater treated with this technology comply with the water quality standards for irrigation, even when stored up to one week, although improvements must be made to minimise microbial overgrowth. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced oxidation; membrane technology; micropollutants; biological contaminants; cytotoxicity; wastewater reuse advanced oxidation; membrane technology; micropollutants; biological contaminants; cytotoxicity; wastewater reuse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Graça, C.A.L.; Ribeirinho-Soares, S.; Abreu-Silva, J.; Ramos, I.I.; Ribeiro, A.R.; Castro-Silva, S.M.; Segundo, M.A.; Manaia, C.M.; Nunes, O.C.; Silva, A.M.T. A Pilot Study Combining Ultrafiltration with Ozonation for the Treatment of Secondary Urban Wastewater: Organic Micropollutants, Microbial Load and Biological Effects. Water 2020, 12, 3458. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123458

AMA Style

Graça CAL, Ribeirinho-Soares S, Abreu-Silva J, Ramos II, Ribeiro AR, Castro-Silva SM, Segundo MA, Manaia CM, Nunes OC, Silva AMT. A Pilot Study Combining Ultrafiltration with Ozonation for the Treatment of Secondary Urban Wastewater: Organic Micropollutants, Microbial Load and Biological Effects. Water. 2020; 12(12):3458. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123458

Chicago/Turabian Style

Graça, Cátia A.L.; Ribeirinho-Soares, Sara; Abreu-Silva, Joana; Ramos, Inês I.; Ribeiro, Ana R.; Castro-Silva, Sérgio M.; Segundo, Marcela A.; Manaia, Célia M.; Nunes, Olga C.; Silva, Adrián M.T. 2020. "A Pilot Study Combining Ultrafiltration with Ozonation for the Treatment of Secondary Urban Wastewater: Organic Micropollutants, Microbial Load and Biological Effects" Water 12, no. 12: 3458. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123458

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