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Article

Performance, Energy and Cost of Produced Water Treatment by Chemical and Electrochemical Coagulation

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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PolyCera Membranes, 721 S. Glasgow Ave., Unit D, Inglewood, CA 90301, USA
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Stepan Company, 22500 Stepan Rd, Elwood, IL 60421, USA
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UCLA Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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ASICO Groupo, Av. El Golf 695, Distrito de Víctor Larco Herrera 13009, Peru
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UCLA California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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UCLA Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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UCLA Institute of the Environment & Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3426; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123426
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 6 December 2020
The separation performance, energy demand, and operating costs of electro-coagulation (EC) are compared to conventional chemical coagulation for oil–water separation using a simulated oil- and gas-produced water matrix. An iron-based chemical coagulant and sacrificial iron electrodes are evaluated. Effluent turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and oil and grease (O&G) removal were determined for various coagulant concentrations and reaction times and current densities. Chemical coagulation produced superior turbidity removal when scaled by the total iron dose. At lower iron doses (<500 mg/L), chemical coagulation yielded better COD, turbidity, and O&G removal. However, chemical coagulation was unable to effectively remove contaminants to meet the offshore discharge limit of 29 ppm O&G. At higher iron doses, EC was more effective at removing COD and O&G. The energy consumption of EC was found to be much higher even when factoring in the energy of production, transporting, and mixing of chemical coagulants, but the overall cost of EC was approximately half the cost of chemical coagulation, and more effective at O&G removal. View Full-Text
Keywords: produced water; coagulation; electro-coagulation; energy consumption; operating cost produced water; coagulation; electro-coagulation; energy consumption; operating cost
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khor, C.M.; Wang, J.; Li, M.; Oettel, B.A.; Kaner, R.B.; Jassby, D.; Hoek, E.M.V. Performance, Energy and Cost of Produced Water Treatment by Chemical and Electrochemical Coagulation. Water 2020, 12, 3426. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123426

AMA Style

Khor CM, Wang J, Li M, Oettel BA, Kaner RB, Jassby D, Hoek EMV. Performance, Energy and Cost of Produced Water Treatment by Chemical and Electrochemical Coagulation. Water. 2020; 12(12):3426. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123426

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khor, Chia M., Jinwen Wang, Minghua Li, Bruce A. Oettel, Richard B. Kaner, David Jassby, and Eric M.V. Hoek 2020. "Performance, Energy and Cost of Produced Water Treatment by Chemical and Electrochemical Coagulation" Water 12, no. 12: 3426. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123426

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