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Review

A Review of Current and Emerging Approaches for Water Pollution Monitoring

1
Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu 808-0196, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3417; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123417
Received: 19 October 2020 / Revised: 17 November 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
The aquatic ecosystem is continuously threatened by the infiltration and discharge of anthropogenic wastewaters. This issue requires the unending improvement of monitoring systems to become more comprehensive and specific to targeted pollutants. This review intended to elucidate the overall aspects explored by researchers in developing better water pollution monitoring tools in recent years. The discussion is encircled around three main elements that have been extensively used as the basis for the development of monitoring methods, namely the dissolved compounds, bacterial indicator, and nucleic acids. The latest technologies applied in wastewater and surface water mapped from these key players were reviewed and categorized into physicochemical and compound characterizations, biomonitoring, and molecular approaches in taxonomical and functional analyses. Overall, researchers are continuously rallying to enhance the detection of causal source for water pollution through either conventional or mostly advanced approaches focusing on spectrometry, high-throughput sequencing, and flow cytometry technology among others. From this review’s perspective, each pollution evaluation technology has its own advantages and it would be beneficial for several aspects of pollutants assessments to be combined and established as a complementary package for better aquatic environmental management in the long run. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic pollution; bioindicator; biomonitoring; pollution assessment; wastewater; water pollution aquatic pollution; bioindicator; biomonitoring; pollution assessment; wastewater; water pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zolkefli, N.; Sharuddin, S.S.; Yusoff, M.Z.M.; Hassan, M.A.; Maeda, T.; Ramli, N. A Review of Current and Emerging Approaches for Water Pollution Monitoring. Water 2020, 12, 3417. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123417

AMA Style

Zolkefli N, Sharuddin SS, Yusoff MZM, Hassan MA, Maeda T, Ramli N. A Review of Current and Emerging Approaches for Water Pollution Monitoring. Water. 2020; 12(12):3417. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123417

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zolkefli, Nurhasliza, Siti S. Sharuddin, Mohd Z.M. Yusoff, Mohd A. Hassan, Toshinari Maeda, and Norhayati Ramli. 2020. "A Review of Current and Emerging Approaches for Water Pollution Monitoring" Water 12, no. 12: 3417. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123417

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