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Review

Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence in Aquatic Environments

1
School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 101 Hardin Hall Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
2
Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, 128 CE Barnhart Lexington, KY 40506, USA
3
Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 200 L.W. Chase Hall Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123388
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
Neonicotinoids have been the most commonly used insecticides since the early 1990s. Despite their efficacy in improving crop protection and management, these agrochemicals have gained recent attention for their negative impacts on non-target species such as honeybees and aquatic invertebrates. In recent years, neonicotinoids have been detected in rivers and streams across the world. Determining and predicting the exposure potential of neonicotinoids in surface water requires a thorough understanding of their fate and transport mechanisms. Therefore, our objective was to provide a comprehensive review of neonicotinoids with a focus on their fate and transport mechanisms to and within surface waters and their occurrence in waterways throughout the world. A better understanding of fate and transport mechanisms will enable researchers to accurately predict occurrence and persistence of insecticides entering surface waters and potential exposure to non-target organisms in agricultural intensive regions. This review has direct implications on how neonicotinoids are monitored and degraded in aquatic ecosystems. Further, an improved understanding of the fate and transport of neonicotinoids aide natural resource practitioners in the development and implementation of effective best management practices to reduce the potential impact and exposure of neonicotinoids in waterways and aquatic ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: neonicotinoid insecticides; fate and transport; agriculture; ecosystem neonicotinoid insecticides; fate and transport; agriculture; ecosystem
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borsuah, J.F.; Messer, T.L.; Snow, D.D.; Comfort, S.D.; Mittelstet, A.R. Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence in Aquatic Environments. Water 2020, 12, 3388. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123388

AMA Style

Borsuah JF, Messer TL, Snow DD, Comfort SD, Mittelstet AR. Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence in Aquatic Environments. Water. 2020; 12(12):3388. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123388

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borsuah, Josephus F., Tiffany L. Messer, Daniel D. Snow, Steve D. Comfort, and Aaron R. Mittelstet. 2020. "Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence in Aquatic Environments" Water 12, no. 12: 3388. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123388

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