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Article

Investigating the Structure of a Coastal Karstic Aquifer through the Hydrogeological Characterization of Springs Using Geophysical Methods and Field Investigation, Gökova Bay, SW Turkey

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Geological Engineering Department, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Menteşe, 48000 Muğla, Turkey
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Center for Environment and Waters, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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College of Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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Civil Engineering Department, Nişantaşı University, Sarıyer, 34398 Istanbul, Turkey
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Institute of Earth and Space Sciences, Eskişehir Technical University, 26555 Eskişehir, Turkey
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Environmental Engineering Department, Sinop University, 57002 Sinop, Turkey
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Department of Hydrogeology, University of Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7285, 5 rue Albert Turpain, 86073 Poitiers, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123343
Received: 2 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
The electrical resistivity tomography method has been widely used in geophysics for many purposes such as determining geological structures, water movement, saltwater intrusion, and tectonic regime modeling. Karstic springs are important for water basin management since the karst systems are highly complex and vulnerable to exploitation and contamination. An accurate geophysical model of the subsurface is needed to reveal the spring structure. In this study, several karst springs in the Gökova Bay (SW, Turkey) were investigated to create a 3D subsurface model of the nearby karstic cavities utilizing electrical resistivity measurements. For this approach, 2D resistivity profiles were acquired and interpreted. Stratigraphically, colluvium, conglomerate, and dolomitic-limestone units were located in the field. The resistivity values of these formations were determined considering both the literature and field survey. Then, 2D profiles were interpolated to create a 3D resistivity model of the study area. Medium-large sized cavities were identified as well as their locations relative to the springs. The measured resistivities were also correlated with the corresponding geological units. The results were then used to construct a 3D model that aids to reveal the cavity geometry in the subsurface. Additionally, several faults are detected and their effect on the cavities is interpreted. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography; induced polarization; 3D imaging; karstic aquifer electrical resistivity tomography; induced polarization; 3D imaging; karstic aquifer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sağır, Ç.; Kurtuluş, B.; Soupios, P.; Ayrancı, K.; Düztaş, E.; Aksoy, M.E.; Avşar, Ö.; Erdem, G.; Pekkan, E.; Canoğlu, M.C.; Kaka, S.I.; Razack, M. Investigating the Structure of a Coastal Karstic Aquifer through the Hydrogeological Characterization of Springs Using Geophysical Methods and Field Investigation, Gökova Bay, SW Turkey. Water 2020, 12, 3343. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123343

AMA Style

Sağır Ç, Kurtuluş B, Soupios P, Ayrancı K, Düztaş E, Aksoy ME, Avşar Ö, Erdem G, Pekkan E, Canoğlu MC, Kaka SI, Razack M. Investigating the Structure of a Coastal Karstic Aquifer through the Hydrogeological Characterization of Springs Using Geophysical Methods and Field Investigation, Gökova Bay, SW Turkey. Water. 2020; 12(12):3343. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123343

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sağır, Çağdaş; Kurtuluş, Bedri; Soupios, Pantelis; Ayrancı, Korhan; Düztaş, Erkan; Aksoy, Murat E.; Avşar, Özgür; Erdem, Günseli; Pekkan, Emrah; Canoğlu, Mustafa C.; Kaka, SanLinn I.; Razack, Moumtaz. 2020. "Investigating the Structure of a Coastal Karstic Aquifer through the Hydrogeological Characterization of Springs Using Geophysical Methods and Field Investigation, Gökova Bay, SW Turkey" Water 12, no. 12: 3343. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123343

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