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Article

Taking into Account both Explicit Conduits and the Unsaturated Zone in Karst Reservoir Hybrid Models: Impact on the Outlet Hydrograph

1
Avignon Université, INRAE, UMR EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon, France
2
Total, CSTJF, Avenue Larribau, 64018 Pau CEDEX, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113221
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 14 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Modelling in Karst Areas)
The main outlets of karst systems are springs, the hydrographs of which are largely affected by flow processes in the unsaturated zone. These processes differ between the epikarst and transmission zone on the one hand and the matrix and conduit on the other hand. However, numerical models rarely consider the unsaturated zone, let alone distinguishing its subsystems. Likewise, few models represent conduits through a second medium, and even fewer do this explicitly with discrete features. This paper focuses on the interest of hybrid models that take into account both unsaturated subsystems and discrete conduits to simulate the reservoir-scale response, especially the outlet hydrograph. In a synthetic karst aquifer model, we performed simulations for several parameter sets and showed the ability of hybrid models to simulate the overall response of complex karst aquifers. Varying parameters affect the pathway distribution and transit times, which results in a large variety of hydrograph shapes. We propose a classification of hydrographs and selected characteristics, which proves useful for analysing the results. The relationships between model parameters and hydrograph characteristics are not all linear; some of them have local extrema or threshold limits. The numerous simulations help to assess the sensitivity of hydrograph characteristics to the different parameters and, conversely, to identify the key parameters which can be manipulated to enhance the modelling of field cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst; hydrodynamics; unsaturated zone; vadose zone; hybrid model; numerical experiments; hydrograph karst; hydrodynamics; unsaturated zone; vadose zone; hybrid model; numerical experiments; hydrograph
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dal Soglio, L.; Danquigny, C.; Mazzilli, N.; Emblanch, C.; Massonnat, G. Taking into Account both Explicit Conduits and the Unsaturated Zone in Karst Reservoir Hybrid Models: Impact on the Outlet Hydrograph. Water 2020, 12, 3221. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113221

AMA Style

Dal Soglio L, Danquigny C, Mazzilli N, Emblanch C, Massonnat G. Taking into Account both Explicit Conduits and the Unsaturated Zone in Karst Reservoir Hybrid Models: Impact on the Outlet Hydrograph. Water. 2020; 12(11):3221. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113221

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dal Soglio, Lucie; Danquigny, Charles; Mazzilli, Naomi; Emblanch, Christophe; Massonnat, Gérard. 2020. "Taking into Account both Explicit Conduits and the Unsaturated Zone in Karst Reservoir Hybrid Models: Impact on the Outlet Hydrograph" Water 12, no. 11: 3221. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113221

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