Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) present a threat to the functioning of freshwater ecosystems. Their spread in the environment can affect both plant and animal health. Ecohydrology serves as a solution for assessment approaches (i.e., threat identification, ecotoxicological assessment, and cause–effect relationship analysis) and solution approaches (i.e., the elaboration of nature-based solutions: NBSs), mitigating the toxic effect of CECs. However, the wide array of potential molecular analyses are not fully exploited in ecohydrological research. Although the number of publications considering the application of molecular tools in freshwater studies has been steadily growing, no paper has reviewed the most prominent studies on the potential use of molecular technologies in ecohydrology. Therefore, the present article examines the role of molecular methods and novel omics technologies as essential tools in the ecohydrological approach to CECs management in freshwater ecosystems. It considers DNA, RNA and protein-level analyses intended to provide an overall view on the response of organisms to stress factors. This is compliant with the principles of ecohydrology, which emphasize the importance of multiple indicator measurements and correlation analysis in order to determine the effects of contaminants, their interaction with other environmental factors and their removal using NBS in freshwater ecosystems.
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