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Open AccessArticle

Resilient Urban Water Services for the 21th Century Society—Stakeholder Survey in Finland

1
Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Latokartanonkaari 11, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
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Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for Southeast Finland, FI-45100 Kouvola, Finland
3
Tapio Katko, Petri Juuti and Jarmo Hukka, Tampere University, Faculty of Built Environment, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010187
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
Resilience has become a vital theme in the discussion concerning urban water services. Resilience in this context can be defined as both keeping up a good level of services, as well as rapid and fluent recovery from failures caused by natural disasters, unsound infrastructure or incorrect management. Although adequate water services resilience can be considered as sustainable, resilience is a wider concept than sustainability. In order to call water services resilient, all sections from policy and management to technical operation should be clear and coherent, and their operation in challenging situations also must be guaranteed. This study seeks a resilient approach to water services through a literature review, and a questionnaire to stakeholders; mainly water supply and sanitation experts. The results show that sufficient technology and good water quality are not sufficient for achieving resilient water services, but also education and institutional management are essential issues. These are accomplished by a methodical education system, capacity building, and good governance. View Full-Text
Keywords: good governance; sanitation; sustainability; water supply good governance; sanitation; sustainability; water supply
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Laitinen, J.; Kallio, J.; Katko, T.S.; Hukka, J.J.; Juuti, P. Resilient Urban Water Services for the 21th Century Society—Stakeholder Survey in Finland. Water 2020, 12, 187.

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