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Article

Effect of Different Copper Levels on Growth and Morpho-Physiological Parameters in Giant Reed (Arundo donax L.) in Semi-Hydroponic Mesocosm Experiment

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Istituto di Ricerca sugli Ecosistemi Terrestri (IRET)—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)-via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
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Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria (CREA)—Centro di Ricerca Ingegneria e Trasformazioni Agroalimentari (CREA-IT)-Via della Pascolare 16, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091837
Received: 4 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
In Mediterranean countries, the use of copper-based fungicides in agriculture is causing a concerning accumulation of copper in the upper layer (0–20 cm) of soils and water bodies. Phytoremediation by energy crops offers the chance to associate the recovering of polluted environments with the production of biomass for bioenergy purposes. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the morpho-physiological response of giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a well-known energy crop, when treated with increasing concentrations of Cu (0, 150, and 300 ppm) in a semi-hydroponic growing system (mesocosm) for one month. The plant morphology (height and base diameter of the stem, number of stems) was not affected by the treatments. The presence of Cu led to the disequilibrium of Fe and Zn foliar concentration and caused an impairment of photosynthetic parameters: at 150 and 300 ppm the chlorophyll content and the ETR were significantly lower than the control. The study demonstrated that, although the presence of Cu may initially affect the plant physiology, the Arundo plants can tolerate up to 300 ppm of Cu without any adverse effect on biomass production, even when grown in semi-hydroponic conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoremediation; heavy metals; energy crops; pollution; water contamination; chlorophyll fluorescence phytoremediation; heavy metals; energy crops; pollution; water contamination; chlorophyll fluorescence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pietrini, F.; Carnevale, M.; Beni, C.; Zacchini, M.; Gallucci, F.; Santangelo, E. Effect of Different Copper Levels on Growth and Morpho-Physiological Parameters in Giant Reed (Arundo donax L.) in Semi-Hydroponic Mesocosm Experiment. Water 2019, 11, 1837. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091837

AMA Style

Pietrini F, Carnevale M, Beni C, Zacchini M, Gallucci F, Santangelo E. Effect of Different Copper Levels on Growth and Morpho-Physiological Parameters in Giant Reed (Arundo donax L.) in Semi-Hydroponic Mesocosm Experiment. Water. 2019; 11(9):1837. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091837

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pietrini, Fabrizio, Monica Carnevale, Claudio Beni, Massimo Zacchini, Francesco Gallucci, and Enrico Santangelo. 2019. "Effect of Different Copper Levels on Growth and Morpho-Physiological Parameters in Giant Reed (Arundo donax L.) in Semi-Hydroponic Mesocosm Experiment" Water 11, no. 9: 1837. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091837

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