Paranoá Lake is an urban lake and it is being used as a source for urban water supply since last year. Until 1990, algal blooms occurred and improvements on wastewater treatment plants carried out improved the water quality very rapidly due to phosphorus load reduction. Recently, water quality is deteriorating, which is probably due to diffuse pollution. In Brazil, we adopt separated pipe networks for sewage and stormwaters, although cross flows occur. The evaluation of urban drainage stormwaters entering the lake and proposition of technical alternatives is crucial in minimizing the impacts on lake water quality. Quantitative and qualitative behavior of urban stormwaters were analyzed by means of monitoring the runoff flows and pollutant concentrations. Mathematical modelling while using the Storm Water Management Model—SWMM was carried out, and good correlations were found for flow modelling. However, poor response was achieved for water quality simulations, affecting the simulated pollutant loads entering the lake. The simulation of 13 alternatives for detention ponds location was also evaluated, as well as their influences on flow damping capability. The detention ponds that were tested were placed in line in the drainage mains to study the effects of their location on the removal of pollutants. As expected, the results showed that ponds located near the outfall are more efficient in reducing flow peaks. However, this layout requires construction woks in areas that are more sensitive to environmental and urbanistic problems and with higher land commercial values. Alternatives with smaller volumes in public areas near the center of the catchment area can lead to the peak flow damping required by the existing drainage network to avoid overflows. In conclusion, detention ponds can be a good alternative for improving the stormwater quantity and quality, but also alternatives that promote increased infiltration, should also be considered for compensating the infiltration lost due to urbanization.
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