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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Stream Discharge on Hyporheic Exchange

1
Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
3
Department ICEA and International Center for Hydrology “Dino Tonini”, University of Padova, 35100 Padua, Italy
4
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B45 0AJ, UK
5
Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 98107 Abisko, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071436
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
Streambed morphology, streamflow dynamics, and the heterogeneity of streambed sediments critically controls the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The present study investigated the impact of different flow regimes on hyporheic exchange in a boreal stream in northern Sweden using experimental and numerical approaches. Low-, base-, and high-flow discharges were simulated by regulating the streamflow upstream in the study area, and temperature was used as the natural tracer to monitor the impact of the different flow discharges on hyporheic exchange fluxes in stretches of stream featuring gaining and losing conditions. A numerical model was developed using geomorphological and hydrological properties of the stream and was then used to perform a detailed analysis of the subsurface water flow. Additionally, the impact of heterogeneity in sediment permeability on hyporheic exchange fluxes was investigated. Both the experimental and modelling results show that temporally increasing flow resulted in a larger (deeper) extent of the hyporheic zone as well as longer hyporheic flow residence times. However, the result of the numerical analysis is strongly controlled by heterogeneity in sediment permeability. In particular, for homogeneous sediments, the fragmentation of upwelling length substantially varies with streamflow dynamics due to the contribution of deeper fluxes. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyporheic zone; transient flow discharge; groundwater-surface water interaction; experimental-modeling study; temperature measurement; depth decaying permeability hyporheic zone; transient flow discharge; groundwater-surface water interaction; experimental-modeling study; temperature measurement; depth decaying permeability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mojarrad, B.B.; Betterle, A.; Singh, T.; Olid, C.; Wörman, A. The Effect of Stream Discharge on Hyporheic Exchange. Water 2019, 11, 1436.

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