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Height–Area–Storage Functional Models for Evaporation-Loss Inclusion in Reservoir-Planning Analysis

1
Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
2
Department of Building and Real Estate, Faculty of Construction and Environment, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon ZS725, Hong Kong
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore 641 112, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
4
Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071413
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Abstract

Reservoir planning without the explicit accommodation of evaporation loss leads to errors in capacity estimates. However, whenever evaporation loss is considered, its quantification uses linear approximations of the intrinsically nonlinear height–area–storage (H–A–S) relationship to estimate the reservoir area, leading to bias in capacity estimates. In this work, biases resulting from using various H–A–S models are evaluated. These models include linear and nonlinear functions, either specifically developed for the case-study sites or available in the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database. All empirically derived approximations used data for two dams in India: the Bhakra on Sutlej River and the Pong on the Beas River, both tributaries of the Indus River. The results showed that linear H–A–S models underestimate the exposed surface area of the Pong reservoir by up to 11.19%; the bias at Bhakra was much less. The GRanD H–A–S model performed very poorly at both reservoirs, producing overprediction in exposed reservoir area of up to 100% and 415% at the Pong and Bhakra reservoirs, respectively. Analyses also showed that up to 29% increase in reservoir capacity is required to compensate for the effect of net evaporation loss at low demand levels. As demand increases, the required evaporation-correction capacity decreases in proportional terms and is indistinguishable for all H–A–S models. Finally, recommendations are made on using the results for evaporation adjustment at nongauged sites in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: evaporation loss; storage capacity; reservoir; WEAP; SPA; height–area–storage functions evaporation loss; storage capacity; reservoir; WEAP; SPA; height–area–storage functions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adeloye, A.J.; Wuni, I.Y.; Dau, Q.V.; Soundharajan, B.-S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.S. Height–Area–Storage Functional Models for Evaporation-Loss Inclusion in Reservoir-Planning Analysis. Water 2019, 11, 1413.

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