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Ecotoxicological Analysis of Emerging Contaminants from Wastewater Discharges in the Coastal Zone of Cihuatlán (Jalisco, Mexico)

1
Department of Studies for the Sustainable Development of the Coastal Zones, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco 48980, Mexico
2
Department of Engineering in Environmental Systems, Laboratory of Clean Technologies, Development of Environmental Processes and Green Engineering, National School of Biological Sciences of National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico 07738, Mexico
3
Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Colima, Colima 28860, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071386
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

This research provides a baseline tool to detect, predict and scientifically evaluate the toxic environmental impact generated by chemical substances that are categorized as emerging contaminants (ECs) with endocrine disruptive action. The present study was carried out in five effluents of wastewater produced by urban and rural settlements of the coastal zone of Cihuatlan, Jalisco. Five compounds, considered ECs and that act as endocrine disruptors, were analyzed: Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Ketorolac, Pentachlorophenol (PCP), and Estradiol. The toxicity level (TEQ) of the ECs is estimated by a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis, evaluating their concentration and assessing the risk involved in the incorporation of each one into the environment. The presence of the ECs was confirmed in all the studied sites. It was attested that the concentrations of pollutants Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Ketorolac, and Pentachlorophenol were within the toxic range, whereas the compound Estradiol was found in concentrations that represent a high toxicity in the same effluents. This research recognizes that the analysis of the physicochemical properties of substances allows for predicting whether a contaminant is likely to act and persist in the environment and, in turn, bioaccumulate in organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecotoxicology; ECs; endocrine disruptors; residual effluents; QSAR analysis; toxic equivalents ecotoxicology; ECs; endocrine disruptors; residual effluents; QSAR analysis; toxic equivalents
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arguello-Pérez, M.Á.; Mendoza-Pérez, J.A.; Tintos-Gómez, A.; Ramírez-Ayala, E.; Godínez-Domínguez, E.; Silva-Bátiz, F.A. Ecotoxicological Analysis of Emerging Contaminants from Wastewater Discharges in the Coastal Zone of Cihuatlán (Jalisco, Mexico). Water 2019, 11, 1386.

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