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Open AccessArticle

Lower Danube Water Quality Quantified through WQI and Multivariate Analysis

European Center of Excellence for the Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Environment, University of Galati, Galati 800201, Romania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1305;
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
The aim of the present paper is to quantify water quality in the Lower Danube Region by using a series of multivariate techniques and the Water Quality Index (WQI). In this paper were measured 18 parameters upstream and downstream the city of Galati along the Danube River, namely: pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), N-NH4+, N-NO2, N-NO3, N total, P-PO43−, SO42−, Cl, Fe-total, Cr-total, Pb2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, As2+, in the interval winter 2013–winter 2016. The samples were either analyzed on the field, or sent for testing to the laboratory. The physicochemical parameters mentioned above were analyzed in accordance with the Romanian and International standards in force. The WQI was calculated according to Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method. The interdependencies between the selected physicochemical parameters were used for determining potential sources of pollution. Monitoring water quality dynamics in the period mentioned above favoured a series of relevant conclusions about the anthropic influence on water quality. Water quality was assessed by processing the measurements results, by calculating the water quality index (WQI), and by using the principal component analyses (PCA) and the response surface method (RSM) with the aim of correlating the indices for the physico-chemical parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: WQI; multivariate analysis; Danube water; physicochemical parameters WQI; multivariate analysis; Danube water; physicochemical parameters
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Iticescu, C.; Georgescu, L.P.; Murariu, G.; Topa, C.; Timofti, M.; Pintilie, V.; Arseni, M. Lower Danube Water Quality Quantified through WQI and Multivariate Analysis. Water 2019, 11, 1305.

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