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Open AccessArticle

Simulating Potential Weekly Stream and Pond Water Available for Irrigation in the Big Sunflower River Watershed of Mississippi Delta

1
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Hydrological Cycle and Sponge City Technology, Beijing 100875, China
3
Genetics and Sustainable Agricultural Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service, Starkville, MS 39759, USA
4
Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, USDA Forest Service, Starkville, MS 39762, USA
5
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061271
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
Groundwater storage and level have declined rapidly in the Big Sunflower River Watershed (BSRW) of Mississippi Delta in recent years. Farmers in this region are beginning to save groundwater resources by increasing surface water usage for agricultural irrigation. In this study, we estimated the weekly amount of surface water available in ponds and streams, determined if the weekly surface water resources are sufficient for major crop irrigation demand, and assessed how much surface water can replace groundwater for agriculture irrigation in the BSRW. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was employed to simulate the weekly water resources for 23 sub-basins from the BSRW. Results showed that weekly stream water resources (SWR), stream evaporation (SE) and water loss from the channel via transmission through the side and bottom of the channel (stream transmission, referred as ST) for BSRW during the growing seasons ranged from 20.4 to 29.4 mm, 7.4 to 14.4 mm, 1.6 to 4.5 mm and 1.1 to 1.6 mm, while pond water resources (PWR) and pond evaporation (PE) ranged from 1.9 to 2.1 mm and 0.3 to 0.5 mm. The value of SWR − (ST + SE) and PWR − PE were positive in all sub-basins, indicating that there are net surface water resources available in this region. The percentages of total groundwater usage for irrigation that could be replaced by surface water in each sub-basin every week of each month from May to September ranged from 10% to 87%. Our studies suggested that the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater for agriculture irrigation is a feasible method for groundwater sustainable management in the Mississippi Delta. View Full-Text
Keywords: Surface water resources; irrigation; stream; pond; SWAT model Surface water resources; irrigation; stream; pond; SWAT model
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Gao, F.; Feng, G.; Ouyang, Y.; Jenkins, J.; Liu, C. Simulating Potential Weekly Stream and Pond Water Available for Irrigation in the Big Sunflower River Watershed of Mississippi Delta. Water 2019, 11, 1271.

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