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Open AccessArticle

Characteristics of Stormwater Quality in Singapore Catchments in 9 Different Types of Land Use

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Shantou University, Shantou 515000, China
Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, Level 1, 8 Scenic Blvd, Clayton Campus, Monash University, 3800 Melbourne, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1089;
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
PDF [730 KB, uploaded 24 May 2019]
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Stormwater quality is well known for its highly stochastic nature and not necessarily well explained by mechanistic urban build up and wash off models. Therefore, local empirical data (based on land use) are an essential compliment to statistical analyses of global data. This paper reports on a large-scale monitoring of the 12 key water quality parameters of suspended solids, nutrients, and heavy metals for stormwater runoff in urban discharges from nine urban land uses with varying sizes in Singapore. It was found that, in general, the average of the event mean concentrations for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, total suspended solids (TSS), and phosphate in parkland land use were higher than the other eight studied land uses. Based on Pearson’s correlation analysis, significant correlation between pairs of water quality parameters was observed. Particularly, there was significant correlation between TSS and most of the other tested water quality parameters in all land uses. A pollutant data set from this study will assist in developing appropriate stormwater quality models, guide the establishment of stormwater treatment objectives and preliminary designs for Singapore catchments, as well as provide an essential complement to statistical analyses of global data for stormwater characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: stormwater runoff; stormwater quality; event mean concentrations (EMCs); land use stormwater runoff; stormwater quality; event mean concentrations (EMCs); land use

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Song, H.; Qin, T.; Wang, J.; Wong, T.H.F. Characteristics of Stormwater Quality in Singapore Catchments in 9 Different Types of Land Use. Water 2019, 11, 1089.

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