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Assessing the Effectiveness of the WFD as a Tool to Address Different Levels of Water Scarcity Based on Two Case Studies of the Mediterranean Region

1
ATHENA Research and Innovation Center - EIT climate KIC Hub, Greece, 6 Artemidos str., Paradeissos Amaroussion, GR 15125 Athens, Greece
2
International Center for Research on the Environment and the Economy (ICRE8), 3 Romanou Melodou str., Paradeissos Amaroussion, GR 15125 Athens, Greece
3
Department of Science and Mathematics, Deree - the American College of Greece, 6 Gravias str., Aghia Paraskevi, GR-153 42 Athens, Greece
4
School of Applied Social Studies, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7QB, UK
5
Athens University of Economics and Business, School of Economics & ReSEES Laboratory, 76 Patission Str., GR10434 Athens, Greece
6
Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Pireaus, M. Karao & A. Dimitriou St., GR18534 Piraeus, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040840
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 21 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics of Water Resources Management)
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PDF [1845 KB, uploaded 21 April 2019]
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Abstract

Despite being a natural phenomenon, water scarcity is, to a great extent, human-induced, particularly affected by climate change and by the increased water resources vulnerability. The Water Framework Directive (WFD), an ‘umbrella’ directive that aims to provide holistic approaches to the management of water resources and is supported by a number of Communication documents on water scarcity, requires for prompt responses to ensure ‘healthy’ water bodies of good ecological status. The current paper presents a multidisciplinary approach, developed and engaged within the Globaqua Project, to provide an assessment of the main challenges towards addressing water scarcity with emphasis on the climate change projections, in two Mediterranean regions. The current paper attempts to critically assess the effectiveness of the WFD as a tool to address water scarcity and increase sustainability in resource use. Criticism lies on the fact that the WFD does not directly refer to it, still, water scarcity is recognized as a factor that increases stress on water resources and deteriorates their status. In addition, the Program of Measures (PoMs) within the WFD clearly contribute to reducing vulnerability of water resources and to ensure current and future water use, also under the impact of the projected climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: water scarcity; sustainable resource management; integrated water management; Program of Measures; climate change; multidisciplinary approach water scarcity; sustainable resource management; integrated water management; Program of Measures; climate change; multidisciplinary approach
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Apostolaki, S.; Akinsete, E.; Tsani, S.; Koundouri, P.; Pittis, N.; Levantis, E. Assessing the Effectiveness of the WFD as a Tool to Address Different Levels of Water Scarcity Based on Two Case Studies of the Mediterranean Region. Water 2019, 11, 840.

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