Terracing and vegetation are an effective practice for soil and water conservation on sloped terrain. They can significantly reduce the sediment yield from the surface area, as well as intercept the sediment yield from upstream. However, most hydrological models mainly simulate the effect of the terraces and vegetation on water and sediment reduction from themselves, without considering their roles in the routing process, and thus likely underestimate their runoff and sediment reduction effect. This study added the impact of terraces and vegetation practice on water and sediment routing using the time-area method. The outflow in each travel time zone was revised in each time step by extracting the watershed of the terrace units and the vegetation units and calculating the water or sediment stored by the terraces or held by the vegetation. The revised time-area method was integrated into the Land change Model-Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (LCM-MUSLE) model. Pianguanhe Basin, in the Chinese Loess Plateau, was chosen as the study area and eight storms in the 1980s and 2010s were selected to calibrate and verify the original LCM-MUSLE model and its revised version. The results showed that the original model was not applicable in more recent years, since the surface was changed significantly as a result of revegetation and slope terracing, while the accuracy improved significantly when using the revised version. For the three events in the 2010s, the average runoff reduction rate in routing process was 51.02% for vegetation, 26.65% for terraces, and 71.86% for both terraces and vegetation. The average sediment reduction rate in routing process was 32.22% for vegetation, 24.52% for terraces, and 53.85% for both terraces and vegetation. This study provides a generalized method to quantitatively assess the impact of terraces and vegetation practice on runoff and sediment reduction at the catchment scale.
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