Effects of Urban Forms on Separate Drainage Systems: A Virtual City Perspective
AbstractThe development of urban drainage systems is challenged by rapid urbanization; however, little attention is paid to the urban form and its effects on these systems. This study develops an integrated city-drainage model that configures typical urban forms and their associated drainage infrastructures, specifically domestic wastewater and rainwater systems, to analyze the relationship between them. Three typical types of urban forms were investigated: the square, the star, and the strip. Virtual cities were designed first, with the corresponding drainage systems generated automatically and then linked to a model herein called the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Evaluation was based on 200 random configurations of wastewater/rainwater systems with different structures or attributes. The results show that urban forms play more important roles on three dimensions of performance, namely economic efficiency, effectiveness, and adaptability, of the rainwater systems than of the wastewater systems. Cost is positively correlated to the effectiveness of rainwater systems among the different urban forms, while adaptability is negatively correlated to the other two performance dimensions. Regardless of the form, it is difficult for a city to make its drainage systems simultaneously cost-effective, efficient, and adaptable based on the virtual cities we investigated. This study could inspire the urban planning of both built-up and to-be-built areas to become more sustainable with their drainage infrastructure by recognizing the pros and cons of different macroscale urban forms. View Full-Text
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Jia, N.; Sitzenfrei, R.; Rauch, W.; Liang, S.; Liu, Y. Effects of Urban Forms on Separate Drainage Systems: A Virtual City Perspective. Water 2019, 11, 758.
Jia N, Sitzenfrei R, Rauch W, Liang S, Liu Y. Effects of Urban Forms on Separate Drainage Systems: A Virtual City Perspective. Water. 2019; 11(4):758.Chicago/Turabian Style
Jia, Ning; Sitzenfrei, Robert; Rauch, Wolfgang; Liang, Shan; Liu, Yi. 2019. "Effects of Urban Forms on Separate Drainage Systems: A Virtual City Perspective." Water 11, no. 4: 758.
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