Next Article in Journal
A New Framework for the Management and Radiological Protection of Groundwater Resources: The Implementation of a Portuguese Action Plan for Radon in Drinking Water and Impacts on Human Health
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Urban Forms on Separate Drainage Systems: A Virtual City Perspective
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Peak Flows and Stormwater Networks Design—Current and Future Management of Urban Surface Watersheds

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040759
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
  |  
PDF [3742 KB, uploaded 19 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Stormwater urban drainage systems are typically designed in open channel flow. Pipe sewers must have enough capacity to transport maximum design flows for a given frequency of the project rainfall. The classic rational method or related procedures that are based on rational approaches are still currently used to a great extent, particularly for small urban drainage basins, and the pipes are frequently designed in uniform steady flow. Numerical integration of Saint-Venant equations for one-dimensional gradually varied unsteady flow allows the computation of waves’ progression along the pipes for given input surface hydrographs. This paper presents a comprehensive, systematic, simple, and original comparison between the peak flows that are achieved through simulation in unsteady flow using an implicit complete dynamic model, developed in the Laboratory of Hydraulics, Water Resources and Environment of Coimbra University, and those that are obtained with the classic rational method along urban drainage networks. Boundary conditions and some approximations typically considered in the methodologies are analyzed in detail. Classic rational approaches may underestimate the peak and design flows. Practical recommendations for the system design phase when rational approaches are used are also proposed. The need for indispensable requirements for suitable urbanization rules, intelligent management of surface runoff in urban basins, and control measures for the reduction of peak flows entering existing networks is confirmed and reinforced. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban drainage networks; open channel flow; stormwater peak flows; simulation in unsteady flow; classic rational method; urban watersheds management urban drainage networks; open channel flow; stormwater peak flows; simulation in unsteady flow; classic rational method; urban watersheds management
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Freire Diogo, A.; Antunes do Carmo, J. Peak Flows and Stormwater Networks Design—Current and Future Management of Urban Surface Watersheds. Water 2019, 11, 759.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top