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Solving Management Problems in Water Distribution Networks: A Survey of Approaches and Mathematical Models

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2
Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0184, South Africa
3
ESIEE-Paris, Cite Descartes, BP 99, 93162 Noisy-le-Grand, France
4
Built Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0184, South Africa
5
Department of Water, Irstea, UR ETBX, 33612 Cestas, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030562
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Abstract

Modern water distribution networks (WDNs) are complex and difficult to manage due to increased level of urbanization, varying consumer demands, ageing infrastructure, operational costs, and inadequate water resources. The management problems in such complex networks may be classified into short-term, medium-term, and long-term, depending on the duration at which the problems are solved or considered. To address the management problems associated with WDNs, mathematical models facilitate analysis and improvement of the performance of water infrastructure at minimum operational cost, and have been used by researchers, water utility managers, and operators. This paper presents a detailed review of the management problems and essential mathematical models that are used to address these problems at various phases of WDNs. In addition, it also discusses the main approaches to address these management problems to meet customer demands at the required pressure in terms of adequate water quantity and quality. Key challenges that are associated with the management of WDNs are discussed. Also, new directions for future research studies are suggested to enable water utility managers and researchers to improve the performance of water distribution networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: calibration; modelling; optimization; reliability; security; vulnerability; water distribution networks; water quality calibration; modelling; optimization; reliability; security; vulnerability; water distribution networks; water quality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bello, O.; Abu-Mahfouz, A.M.; Hamam, Y.; Page, P.R.; Adedeji, K.B.; Piller, O. Solving Management Problems in Water Distribution Networks: A Survey of Approaches and Mathematical Models. Water 2019, 11, 562.

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