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Interaction of Surface Water and Groundwater Influenced by Groundwater Over-Extraction, Waste Water Discharge and Water Transfer in Xiong’an New Area, China

1
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
School of Land Resources and Urban & Rural Planning, Hebei GEO University, No. 136 East Huai’an Road, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang 050031, China
4
School of Water Resources and Environment, Hebei GEO University, No. 136 East Huai’an Road, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang 050031, China
5
School of Environmental Sciences & Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
6
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
7
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona 08034, Spain
8
Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030539
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface-Groundwater Interactions: Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis)
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Abstract

Understanding the interaction of surface water and groundwater affected by anthropogenic activities is of great importance for water resource and water quality management. The Xiong’an New Area, located in the North China Plain, has been designated a new building area by China’s government. Groundwater has been over pumped and artificial water was transferred to meet the water supply in this region. Therefore, the natural interaction of surface water and groundwater has been greatly changed and there has been a complex impact of the groundwater from anthropogenic activities. In this study, we used water chemical ions and stable isotopes of δ2H and δ18O to assess the interaction of surface water and groundwater in the Xiong’an New Area. We carried out field surveys and water sampling of the Fu River (domestic waste water discharge), Lake Baiyangdian (artificial water transfer), and the underlying groundwater along the water bodies. Results show that the artificial surface water (discharged and transferred) became the major recharge source for the local groundwater due to the decline of groundwater table. We used groundwater table observations, end-member mixing analysis of the stable isotopic composition and chloride tracers to estimate the contributions of different recharge sources to the local groundwater. Due to the over pumping of groundwater, the lateral groundwater recharge was dominant with a contribution ratio ranging from 12% to 78% in the upper reach of the river (Sections 1–3). However, the contribution of lateral groundwater recharge was estimated to be negligible with respect to the artificial water recharge from Lake Baiyangdian. Seepage from the Fu River contributed a significant amount of water to the connecting aquifer, with a contribution ranging from 14% to 75% along the river. The extent of the river influence into the aquifer ranges as far as 1400 m to the south and 400 m to the north of the Fu River. Estimations based on isotopic fractionation shows that about 22.3% of Lake Baiyangdian water was lost by evaporation. By using the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in the lake water, an influencing range of 16 km west of the lake was determined. The interaction of the surface water and groundwater is completely changed by anthropogenic activities, such as groundwater over pumping, waste water discharge and water transfer. The switched interaction of surface water and groundwater has a significant implication on water resources management. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface water—groundwater interaction; anthropogenic activities; groundwater over-exploitation; groundwater recharge; end-member mixing analysis (EMMA); North China Plain; Xiong’an New Area surface water—groundwater interaction; anthropogenic activities; groundwater over-exploitation; groundwater recharge; end-member mixing analysis (EMMA); North China Plain; Xiong’an New Area
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Zhu, M.; Wang, S.; Kong, X.; Zheng, W.; Feng, W.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, R.; Song, X.; Sprenger, M. Interaction of Surface Water and Groundwater Influenced by Groundwater Over-Extraction, Waste Water Discharge and Water Transfer in Xiong’an New Area, China. Water 2019, 11, 539.

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