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Water 2019, 11(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020324

Between Emulation and Assemblage: Analysing WFD Policy Transfer Outcomes in Turkey

Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn TR10 9FE, Cornwall, UK
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Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract

Turkey’s protracted European Union (EU) accession process has resulted in the transfer of environmental policy, primarily the water acquis. Despite a recent reversal in accession negotiations, this process is continuing and has thereby resulted in the active Europeanisation of Turkish water policy. However, the resultant pattern of Europeanisation remains poorly understood with questions arising as to whether policy transfer is leading to significant convergence with EU policy, or if a uniquely Turkish hybrid system of water governance is emerging. The paper therefore provides an analysis of transfer outcomes from the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), using eight core institutional features: identification of river basins; transboundary cooperation; environmental objectives setting; characterisation of river basins; monitoring; cost recovery and water pricing; river basin management planning; and public participation. While analysis of legal frameworks and their implementation shows many areas of emulation, some features of the WFD in Turkey are an amalgam of pre-existing water institutions, the mimetic influence of integrated water resources management (IWRM) norms, EU policy and changing national water policy priorities: what we call assembled emulation. This observation has implications for future studies on policy transfer, Europeanisation, IWRM and Turkish accession. View Full-Text
Keywords: European Union; Turkey; Europeanisation; institutions; policy transfer; Water Framework Directive European Union; Turkey; Europeanisation; institutions; policy transfer; Water Framework Directive
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Demirbilek, B.; Benson, D. Between Emulation and Assemblage: Analysing WFD Policy Transfer Outcomes in Turkey. Water 2019, 11, 324.

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