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Water 2019, 11(2), 320;

Long-Term Infiltration Performance Evaluation of Dutch Permeable Pavements Using the Full-Scale Infiltration Method

NoorderRuimte, Centre of Applied Research and Innovation on Area Development, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Zernikeplein 7, P.O. Box 3037, 9701 DA Groningen, The Netherlands
Global Center on Adaptation, Energy Academy Europe, Nijenborgh 6, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
Stormwater Research Group, School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD 4558, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
PDF [1978 KB, uploaded 14 February 2019]


This research used a newly developed, full-scale infiltration testing (FSIT) procedure to determine the saturated surface infiltration rate of 16 existing permeable pavement installations in the Netherlands that have been in service for a number of years. Newly installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 L/s/ha). Only four of the 16 pavements tested in this study had an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h. Most previous research has focused on unsaturated infiltration rates. However, the results of this study show that the difference in infiltration capacity between saturated and unsaturated can differ by up to 300%. If the unsaturated infiltration capacity is used as design input for computer models, the infiltration capacity may be significantly overestimated. The study demonstrated that the FSIT method is a reliable and accurate way to measure surface infiltration rates of permeable pavements. However, it is recommended that a minimum of three different FSIT tests should be undertaken at the same pavement location, and that the results should be averaged, to ensure appropriate infiltration rates are observed, recorded, and used in design. The results of this study should help stormwater managers with the planning, testing, and scheduling of maintenance requirements for permeable pavements with more confidence so that they will continue to perform satisfactorily over their intended design life. View Full-Text
Keywords: permeable pavement; infiltration rate; clogging; full-scale test method; monitoring permeable pavement; infiltration rate; clogging; full-scale test method; monitoring

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Boogaard, F.; Lucke, T. Long-Term Infiltration Performance Evaluation of Dutch Permeable Pavements Using the Full-Scale Infiltration Method. Water 2019, 11, 320.

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