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Water 2019, 11(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020319

A Multi-Dimensional Hydro-Climatic Similarity and Classification Framework Based on Budyko Theory for Continental-Scale Applications in China

1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

Our knowledge of the similarities and differences in ecological systems is vital to understanding the co-evolution of ecological factors. This study proposes a multi-dimensional hydro-climatic similarity and classification framework based on Budyko theory. The framework employs the dryness index (DI), evaporative index (EI), and an empirical parameter (ω) to further sub-divide four climatic zones (humid, semi-humid, semi-arid, and arid zones) in terms of DI. A criterion that define the similarities between stations is proposed to verify the classification to obtain optimal results. This method is applied to Mainland China, and 637 stations are adopted for continental-scale classification experiments. The point cloud of the Budyko curve for all the stations in Mainland China is plotted. We find that the hydrothermal conditions of the vertically distributed stations on the Budyko curve can be quite different in the same climatic zone when DI < 4.0. The higher the vertical locations of the stations on the Budyko curve are, the drier and colder the climates and corresponding natural landscapes. Under the proposed hydro-climatic classification framework, the four climatic zones are further divided into 17 sub-regions, and the hydrothermal conditions for each sub-region are discussed. The results suggest that regional differences of long-term water balance are resulted by not only mean annual hydrothermal factors and catchment forms but also annual distribution of hydrothermal factors. Our framework can provide hydrologically-based classification across continental scale and, thus, provide a profound understanding of hydrothermal conditions of continental-scale hydrological cycles. View Full-Text
Keywords: Budyko theory; hydro-climatic classification; dryness index; evaporative index; Mainland China Budyko theory; hydro-climatic classification; dryness index; evaporative index; Mainland China
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Liu, J.; Xu, S.; Han, X.; Chen, X.; He, R. A Multi-Dimensional Hydro-Climatic Similarity and Classification Framework Based on Budyko Theory for Continental-Scale Applications in China. Water 2019, 11, 319.

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