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Water 2019, 11(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020317

Meteorological Factors Affecting Pan Evaporation in the Haihe River Basin, China

1
School of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056021, China
2
Hebei Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau, Shijiazhuang 050000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract

Pan evaporation (Epan) is an important indicator of regional evaporation intensity and degree of drought. However, although more evaporation is expected under rising temperatures, the reverse trend has been observed in many parts of the world, known as the “pan evaporation paradox”. In this paper, the Haihe River Basin (HRB) is divided into six sub-regions using the Canopy and k-means (The process for partitioning an N-dimensional population into k sets on the basis of a sample is called “k-means”) to cluster 44 meteorological stations in the area. The interannual and seasonal trends and the significance of eight meteorological indicators, including average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed, and Epan, were analyzed for 1961 to 2010 using the trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall (TFPW-MK) test. Then, the correlation between meteorological elements and Epan was analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Results show that the average temperature, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature of the HRB increased, while precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed and Epan exhibited a downward trend. The minimum temperature rose 2 and 1.5 times faster than the maximum temperature and average temperature, respectively. A significant reduction in sunshine duration was found to be the primary factor in the Epan decrease, while declining wind speed was the secondary factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; Pan evaporation; TFPW-MK; Haihe River Basin evapotranspiration; Pan evaporation; TFPW-MK; Haihe River Basin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yan, Z.; Wang, S.; Ma, D.; Liu, B.; Lin, H.; Li, S. Meteorological Factors Affecting Pan Evaporation in the Haihe River Basin, China. Water 2019, 11, 317.

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