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Open AccessArticle

Stable Isotope Reveals Tap Water Source under Different Water Supply Modes in the Eastern Margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
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Water 2019, 11(12), 2578; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122578
Received: 7 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Based on 1260 tap water samples gathered monthly and 136 surface water samples collected seasonally in the eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, the local tap water line, the basic spatiotemporal characteristics of tap water isotopes, and their indication for water source under different water supply modes were discussed, linking the local tap water supply and water source information. A new tap water isotopes data set based on dense sampling sites was established, which was reliable for the analysis of tap water isotope features, tap water supply management, and tap water sources. The main conclusions are: (1) The local tap water lines in Gannan and Longnan are δ2H = (7.06 ± 0.17) δ18O + (3.24 ± 1.75) (r2 = 0.81, p < 0.01) and δ2H = (5.66 ± 0.09) δ18O + (−8.12 ± 0.82) (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.01), respectively. (2) The annual mean δ2H and δ18O in tap water show an increasing trend from southwest to northeast. The seasonal differences of δ2H and δ18O in tap water in Gannan and Longnan are small. (3) The correlation of tap water isotopes with those in main source water is high, while that of isotopes in tap water with those in non-water source is low. Under the central water supply mode by local tap water company, tap water isotopes in Gannan where groundwater is the direct water source show weak connection with those in surface water and precipitation, and those in tap water in Longnan with surface water as main source water reveal good connection with isotopes in surface water. Under mixed water supply modes, tap water isotopes indicate that surface water is the main tap water source in Gannan and Longnan with multiple water sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: δ2H and δ18O; tap water; surface water; water source; Qinghai–Tibet Plateau δ2H and δ18O; tap water; surface water; water source; Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
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Du, M.; Zhang, M.; Wang, S.; Meng, H.; Che, C.; Guo, R. Stable Isotope Reveals Tap Water Source under Different Water Supply Modes in the Eastern Margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Water 2019, 11, 2578.

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