Next Article in Journal
Synergies within the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to Support the Integrated Urban Resources Governance
Previous Article in Journal
Passage Performance of Technical Pool-Type Fishways for Potamodromous Cyprinids: Novel Experiences in Semiarid Environments
Article

Impact of Human Activities and Natural Processes on the Seasonal Variability of River Water Quality in Two Watersheds in Lampung, Indonesia

1
United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-cho Minami, Tottori 680-8550, Japan
2
Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 12, Bogor 16114, Indonesia
3
Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
4
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung, Jl. Prof. Dr. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia
5
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue 690-8504, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112363
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 11 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
This study identified seasonal water quality characteristics in two adjacent mountainous rivers (Sangharus and Sekampung Hulu Rivers) in Lampung, Indonesia and determined the impacts of fertilizer application on river chemistry as a result of social forestry management. In 2016, we measured water chemistry and conducted a farmers’ questionnaire survey to obtain information on fertilizer application. The water quality results indicated that several parameters, including nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4), were significantly higher in the Sangharus River than in the Sekampung Hulu River. In addition, several parameters were influenced by dilution from high river flow in the rainy season. Some parameters were likely influenced by the weathering of parent materials. By contrast, electrical conductivity (EC) and NO3 were higher in the rainy season, which was likely linked to the dominant timing of urea fertilizer application during this season. Despite the application of fertilizers in the watersheds, NO3 levels remained below the recommended standard. However, aluminum and iron concentrations were higher than the recommended level for drinking water, which was likely due to elevated soil erosion from improper land management. Therefore, we recommend that effective land management policies be implemented through the adoption of soil conservation practices for nutrient loss prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: fertilizer application; dry and rainy seasons; parent material; social forestry; water quality; coffee plantation fertilizer application; dry and rainy seasons; parent material; social forestry; water quality; coffee plantation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dewi Yustika, R.; Somura, H.; Budi Yuwono, S.; Masunaga, T. Impact of Human Activities and Natural Processes on the Seasonal Variability of River Water Quality in Two Watersheds in Lampung, Indonesia. Water 2019, 11, 2363. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112363

AMA Style

Dewi Yustika R, Somura H, Budi Yuwono S, Masunaga T. Impact of Human Activities and Natural Processes on the Seasonal Variability of River Water Quality in Two Watersheds in Lampung, Indonesia. Water. 2019; 11(11):2363. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112363

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dewi Yustika, Rahmah, Hiroaki Somura, Slamet Budi Yuwono, and Tsugiyuki Masunaga. 2019. "Impact of Human Activities and Natural Processes on the Seasonal Variability of River Water Quality in Two Watersheds in Lampung, Indonesia" Water 11, no. 11: 2363. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112363

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop