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Mathematical Modeling of Ice Thrusting on the Shore of the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea) and the Proposed Artificial Island

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Water 2019, 11(11), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112297
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
Coastal lagoons are inland and shallow water bodies, separated from the ocean by a barrier. In cold regions, ice phenomena in shallow water coastal lagoons occur every winter season. Ice is predominantly formed on the surface due to density stratification and surface cooling. The ice dynamics in such areas are dominantly affected by winds. Water dynamics also cause ice movement, but due to the large areal scale of lagoons, the effect is usually limited to the direct vicinity of river estuaries. For open lagoons, which are connected to the sea by straits, tides will also cause significant movement of the ice inside the lagoon. Due to the limitation of ice outflow from a lagoon, ice fields will form ridges or hummocks on the shores. In this paper, the case of the Vistula Lagoon, located on the southern Baltic coast, is analyzed. Currently, the project of a new strait connecting the Baltic Sea with the Vistula Lagoon is in progress. As an effect of extensive dredging for the waterway to the port of Elblag, the material will be disposed of at a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF), which will form an artificial island. The island will be located on the western part of the lagoon, limiting the cross-section by about 20%. In consequence, ice cover pushed by winds blowing along the lagoon will create significant force action on the island banks. The DynaRICE mathematical model has been used to evaluate the ice dynamics and to determine the force produced by the ice on the coasts of the lagoon and the artificial island. View Full-Text
Keywords: ice dynamics; ice load; artificial island; confined disposal facility; ice hummocks ice dynamics; ice load; artificial island; confined disposal facility; ice hummocks
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Kolerski, T.; Zima, P.; Szydłowski, M. Mathematical Modeling of Ice Thrusting on the Shore of the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea) and the Proposed Artificial Island. Water 2019, 11, 2297.

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