Plant leaf surface moisture is a frequent meteorological phenomenon that has complicated sources. As such, the determination of whether surface moisture is the input water or only the redistribution of water in the soil–plant–atmosphere ecosystem is of great importance. In this study, δ18
O and δ
D characteristic values of dew, guttation, and soil waters in Buxus sinica
M. Cheng were monitored during the frost-free period (June–September 2017) in Changchun, China, to differentiate the hydraulic relationship among atmospheric vapor, rainwater, soil, dew, and guttation waters and quantitatively distinguish the leaf surface moisture on the canopy and bottom of plants. The water vapor sources of the leaf surface moisture on plants’ canopy and bottom were quantitatively verified in accordance with isotope fractionation and mass conservation principles. Results demonstrated that leaf surface moisture, atmospheric vapor, soil water, and dew were closely related. Leaf surface moisture was mainly the condensation of dew. The sources of canopy and bottom leaf surface moisture were basically the same. The proportions of canopy moisture from plant guttation, atmospheric vapor, and soil water were 2.4%–2.5%, 79.8%–92.4%, and 5.1%–17.8%, respectively. By comparison, the proportions of bottom leaf surface moisture were 0.6%–1.4%, 80.0%–93.0%, and 6.4%–18.6%, respectively. Leaf surface moisture is an important water input in urban systems. Moreover, the characteristic values of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of urban dew are supplemented, and the transformation of atmospheric vapor, rainwater, and soil and dew waters is revealed.
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