(1) Background: As a halophytic species, Tamarix (Tamarix chinensis
) can be used for saline soil rehabilitation in China. The reclamation and rehabilitation of saline soil depend on the water consumption of plants. However, whether water resources in saline soil can support the construction of Tamarix vegetation is still unknown. (2) Methods: In this study, we measured the transpiration (T) of Tamarix for 3 years using sap flow and the evaporation (E) for 1 year using a micro-lysimeter in Tamarix land. The evaporation values in 2016 and 2017 were estimated with the soil crop coefficients obtained in 2018. (3) Results: The evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 514.2 to 573.8 mm and was greatly affected by the wind speed, VPD and groundwater table. Transpiration was the main form of water consumption in this region, accounting for 60.2% of the total evapotranspiration. Compared with bare land, vegetation construction increased soil moisture dissipation by 377.6 mm in 2018. According to on-site measurements and estimates, the water shortage in the dry year was 107.2 mm, and the residual water values in the normal year and wet year were 77.8 mm and 187.5 mm, respectively. May and September were months of widespread water shortages in different precipitation years. Although the cultivation of this plant increased water consumption, the groundwater table remained at approximately 0.5 m during the study year. (4) Conclusions: These results indicated that planting Tamarix in coastal saline soil was feasible for the reclamation and rehabilitation of saline soil. In the dry year (2017), the consumption of evapotranspiration exceeded the precipitation. The inverse occurred in the normal year (2016) and wet year (2018). Taken together, our findings showed that the water resources in the coastal saline soil of China could tolerate vegetation construction and laid a strong foundation for saline soil rehabilitation.
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