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Seasonal Groundwater Quality Status and Nitrogen Contamination in the Shallow Aquifer System of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

1
Integrated Graduate School of Medicine, Engineering and Agricultural Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2
Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment (ICRE), University of Yamanashi, 4 Chome-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
3
School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan
4
Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 44613, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102184
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 20 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
The increasing concentration of nitrogen compounds in the groundwater is of a growing concern in terms of human health and groundwater quality. Although an excess of nitrogen compounds in the groundwater of the Kathmandu Valley has been reported, the seasonal variations of the fate of the nitrogen compounds and their relationships to the subsurface sediments are unknown. In this study, spatially distributed shallow dug well samples were collected during both the dry and wet seasons of 2016, and the nitrogen compound, chloride (Cl), and iron (Fe2+) concentrations were analyzed. Two shallow dug wells and one deep tube well were monitored monthly for 2 years. Although NH4-N concentrations were similar in the clay-dominated areas during both seasons (1 and 0.9 mg-N/L), they were lower in the gravel-dominated areas during wet season (1.8 > 0.6 mg-N/L). The NO3-N concentration differed depending upon the soil type which increased during the wet season (clay 4.9 < 13.6 mg-N/L and gravel 2.5 < 6.8 mg-N/L). The Fe2+ concentration, however, was low during the wet season (clay 2.7 > 0.4 mg/L and gravel 2.8 > 0.3 mg/L). Long-term analysis showed higher fluctuation of nitrogen compounds in the gravel-bearing areas than in the clay-bearing areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow groundwater; water quality; seasonal variation; nitrogen contamination; nitrification; soil type shallow groundwater; water quality; seasonal variation; nitrogen contamination; nitrification; soil type
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Shakya, B.M.; Nakamura, T.; Kamei, T.; Shrestha, S.D.; Nishida, K. Seasonal Groundwater Quality Status and Nitrogen Contamination in the Shallow Aquifer System of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Water 2019, 11, 2184.

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