Next Article in Journal
Seasonal Groundwater Quality Status and Nitrogen Contamination in the Shallow Aquifer System of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Previous Article in Journal
Dewatering Characteristics and Inflow Prediction of Deep Foundation Pits with Partial Penetrating Curtains in Sand and Gravel Strata
Open AccessArticle

Quantify Piston and Preferential Water Flow in Deep Soil Using Cl and Soil Water Profiles in Deforested Apple Orchards on the Loess Plateau, China

by 1, 1,2,3,*, 3,* and 1
1
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N-5A8, Canada
3
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264001, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102183
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Piston and preferential water flow are viewed as the two dominant water transport mechanisms regulating terrestrial water and solute cycles. However, it is difficult to accurately separate the two water flow patterns because preferential flow is not easy to capture directly in field environments. In this study, we take advantage of the afforestation induced desiccated deep soil, and directly quantify piston and preferential water flow using chloride ions (Cl) and soil water profiles, in four deforested apple orchards on the Loess Plateau. The deforestation time ranged from 3 to 15 years. In each of the four selected orchards, there was a standing orchard that was planted at the same time as the deforested one, and therefore the standing orchard was used to benchmark the initial Cl and soil water profiles of the deforested orchard. In the deforested orchards, piston flow was detected using the migration of the Cl front, and preferential flow was measured via soil water increase below the Cl front. Results showed that in the desiccated zone, Cl migrated to deeper soil after deforestation, indicating that the desiccated soil layer formed by the water absorption of deep-rooted apple trees did not completely inhibit the movement of water. Moreover, there was an evident increase in soil water below the downward Cl front, directly demonstrating the existence of preferential flow in deep soil under field conditions. Although pore water velocity was small in the deep loess, preferential water flow still accounted for 34–65% of total infiltrated water. This study presented the mechanisms that regulate movement of soil water following deforestation through field observations and advanced our understanding of the soil hydrologic process in deep soil. View Full-Text
Keywords: preferential flow; piston flow; apple orchard; Loess Plateau; deep soil water preferential flow; piston flow; apple orchard; Loess Plateau; deep soil water
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Si, B.; Li, H.; Li, M. Quantify Piston and Preferential Water Flow in Deep Soil Using Cl and Soil Water Profiles in Deforested Apple Orchards on the Loess Plateau, China. Water 2019, 11, 2183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102183

AMA Style

Zhang Z, Si B, Li H, Li M. Quantify Piston and Preferential Water Flow in Deep Soil Using Cl and Soil Water Profiles in Deforested Apple Orchards on the Loess Plateau, China. Water. 2019; 11(10):2183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Si, Bingcheng; Li, Huijie; Li, Min. 2019. "Quantify Piston and Preferential Water Flow in Deep Soil Using Cl and Soil Water Profiles in Deforested Apple Orchards on the Loess Plateau, China" Water 11, no. 10: 2183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102183

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop