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Article

Causal Inference of Optimal Control Water Level and Inflow in Reservoir Optimal Operation Using Fuzzy Cognitive Map

1
School of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Hubei Key Laboratory of Digital Valley Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
3
Changjiang Institute of Survey Planning Design and Research, Changjiang Water Resources Commision, Wuhan 430010, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102147
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Reservoir optimal operation (ROO) has always been a hot issue in the field of water resources management. Analysis of the relationship of optimal control water level and inflow is conducive to understanding and solving ROO under deterministic inflow conditions. The current research uses a fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) as a tool to effectively model complex systems and then extracts systematic relationship diagrams from the dataset. A new fuzzy cognitive map with offset (FCM-O) is proposed to overcome the causal inference error caused by non-linear mapping of the activation function in a traditional FCM. With the application of inferring the causal relationship between the optimal control water level and inflow of ROO for the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), the experimental results show that, compared with FCM in the min data error, FCM-O reduces 11.11% and 7.14% in the training and the testing, respectively. Also, the experimental results of FCM-O are more reasonable than those of FCM. Finally, the following conclusions about the causal inference of optimal control water level and inflow in ROO for TGR are drawn: (1) The optimal control water level in September, October and November needs to be raised as much as possible to raise the water head of power generation, which is mainly affected by the constraints of the maximum operating water level of the reservoir rather than inflow; (2) the optimal control water level in January, February and March is positively affected by the inflow of the adjacent months; (3) the optimal control water level in April is due to the approaching flood season. In order to prevent water discarding, the water level is low and the optimum operation space is small. All of those shows that FCM-O is more competent than FCM in the causal relationship between optimal control water level and inflow in ROO. View Full-Text
Keywords: fuzzy cognitive map (FCM); reservoir optimal operation (ROO); dynamic programming (DP); differential evolution (DE); causal inference fuzzy cognitive map (FCM); reservoir optimal operation (ROO); dynamic programming (DP); differential evolution (DE); causal inference
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Zhou, J.; He, Z.; Lu, C.; Jia, B.; Qin, H.; Feng, K.; He, F.; Liu, G. Causal Inference of Optimal Control Water Level and Inflow in Reservoir Optimal Operation Using Fuzzy Cognitive Map. Water 2019, 11, 2147. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102147

AMA Style

Liu Y, Zhou J, He Z, Lu C, Jia B, Qin H, Feng K, He F, Liu G. Causal Inference of Optimal Control Water Level and Inflow in Reservoir Optimal Operation Using Fuzzy Cognitive Map. Water. 2019; 11(10):2147. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102147

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yi; Zhou, Jianzhong; He, Zhongzheng; Lu, Chengwei; Jia, Benjun; Qin, Hui; Feng, Kuaile; He, Feifei; Liu, Guangbiao. 2019. "Causal Inference of Optimal Control Water Level and Inflow in Reservoir Optimal Operation Using Fuzzy Cognitive Map" Water 11, no. 10: 2147. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102147

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