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Presence and Natural Treatment of Organic Micropollutants and their Risks after 100 Years of Incidental Water Reuse in Agricultural Irrigation

Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Circuito Escolar s/n, Delegación Coyoacán, Ciudad de Mexico D.F. CP 04510, Mexico
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Water 2019, 11(10), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102148
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 2 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
The aim of the research was to show the presence of micropollutants contained in the wastewater of Mexico City within the distribution canals of the Mezquital Valley (MV), as well as their retention in agricultural soil and aquifers. This system constitutes the world’s oldest and largest example of the use of untreated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. The artificial recharge associated with the MV aquifers, with groundwater extracted for human consumption showing its importance as a water resource for Mexico City. The results of sampling show the presence of 18 compounds, with 10 of these considered as endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). The concentration of these pollutants ranged from 2 ng/L for 17 β-estradiol to 99 ng/L for DEHP, with these values decreasing throughout the course of the canals due to the wastewater dilution factor, their retention in agricultural soil, and their accumulation in the local aquifer. The main mechanisms involved in natural attenuation are adsorption, filtration, and biodegradation. Drinking water equivalent levels (DWELs) were estimated for 11 compounds with regard to acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), by assuming local exposure parameters for a rural Mexican population. These were compared with the maximum groundwater concentrations (Cgw) to screen the potential risks. The very low ratios of Cgw to DWELs indicate no appreciable human health risk from the presence of trace concentrations of these compounds in the source of drinking water in the MV. Despite this, far from being exceeded after more than 100 years of irrigation with residual water, the natural soil attenuation seems to remain stable. View Full-Text
Keywords: residual water; organic micropollutants; natural treatment; Mexico City; Mezquital Valley; agricultural irrigation; environmental risk residual water; organic micropollutants; natural treatment; Mexico City; Mezquital Valley; agricultural irrigation; environmental risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chávez-Mejía, A.C.; Navarro-González, I.; Magaña-López, R.; Uscanga-Roldán, D.; Zaragoza-Sánchez, P.I.; Jiménez-Cisneros, B.E. Presence and Natural Treatment of Organic Micropollutants and their Risks after 100 Years of Incidental Water Reuse in Agricultural Irrigation. Water 2019, 11, 2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102148

AMA Style

Chávez-Mejía AC, Navarro-González I, Magaña-López R, Uscanga-Roldán D, Zaragoza-Sánchez PI, Jiménez-Cisneros BE. Presence and Natural Treatment of Organic Micropollutants and their Risks after 100 Years of Incidental Water Reuse in Agricultural Irrigation. Water. 2019; 11(10):2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102148

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chávez-Mejía, Alma C.; Navarro-González, Inés; Magaña-López, Rafael; Uscanga-Roldán, Dafne; Zaragoza-Sánchez, Paloma I.; Jiménez-Cisneros, Blanca E. 2019. "Presence and Natural Treatment of Organic Micropollutants and their Risks after 100 Years of Incidental Water Reuse in Agricultural Irrigation" Water 11, no. 10: 2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102148

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