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Article

Optimization Difficulty Indicator and Testing Framework for Water Distribution Network Complexity

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeol-daero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 42601, Korea
2
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
3
JE Fuller Hydrology and Geomorphology, Inc., 40 E Helen St., Tucson, AZ 85705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102132
Received: 4 July 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
In the last three decades, benchmark water distribution networks (WDNs) have provided a common testbed for new optimization algorithms and design approaches. However, deriving generalized and reliable conclusions from such benchmark WDNs is difficult because their optimization difficulty levels (ODLs) are either too low or too high (i.e., biased). Final solutions do not consistently converge to a global optimum for a WDN problem with a high ODL. In addition, little effort has been given to quantifying and comparing the ODLs of WDNs with different characteristics and conditions. In this study, an ODL indicator was developed for WDNs: the coefficient of variation of the final solution fitness values. An ODL quantification framework was also developed with two phases: (1) generating network layouts with various topological characteristics, and (2) quantifying the statistics of the final solution quality and ODL by using a global parallel genetic algorithm. The proposed indicator and framework were applied to the design of a dense-grid B-city network and large C network, and the results demonstrated their applicability to generating a WDN benchmark problem with the target ODL. View Full-Text
Keywords: least cost optimization; graph theory; pipe sizing and layout optimization; two-phase design least cost optimization; graph theory; pipe sizing and layout optimization; two-phase design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, D.; Lee, S.; Hwang, H. Optimization Difficulty Indicator and Testing Framework for Water Distribution Network Complexity. Water 2019, 11, 2132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102132

AMA Style

Jung D, Lee S, Hwang H. Optimization Difficulty Indicator and Testing Framework for Water Distribution Network Complexity. Water. 2019; 11(10):2132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jung, Donghwi; Lee, Seungyub; Hwang, Hwee. 2019. "Optimization Difficulty Indicator and Testing Framework for Water Distribution Network Complexity" Water 11, no. 10: 2132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102132

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