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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Assessing the Potential for Potable Water Savings in the Residential Sector of a City: A Case Study of Joinville City

Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina 88040-900, Brazil
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Water 2019, 11(10), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102074
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Accounting)
The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in the residential sector of Joinville, a city located in southern Brazil. Data on roof areas of residential buildings were obtained from the Joinville city council. By considering the roof areas and typologies of residential buildings, representative models were created. The following parameters were used to determine the rainwater tank capacity: the number of dwellers; the total daily water demand per capita; and the rainwater demand. To carry out the simulations for determining the optimal rainwater tank sizes and potential for potable water savings, the computer program Netuno was used to run 33,720 different scenarios. By considering the occurrence percentage for each representative building model (weighted average), the average potential for potable water savings by using rainwater was calculated. The average potential in the central region of Joinville was 18.5% when there is rainwater use only in toilets, and 40.8% when there is rainwater use in toilets and washing machines. The rainwater harvesting system showed a better performance for a rainwater demand equal to 20% of the total daily water demand. The results indicate the necessity to properly size rainwater tank capacities to meet water demands, thereby encouraging more people to adopt rainwater harvesting as an alternative source for non-potable water in buildings. The demand for rainwater should be carefully evaluated, especially in multi-story residential buildings, due to the low availability of roof areas.
Keywords: rainwater harvesting; potable water savings; water demand; residential buildings; tank sizing; computer simulation rainwater harvesting; potable water savings; water demand; residential buildings; tank sizing; computer simulation
MDPI and ACS Style

Custódio, D.A.; Ghisi, E. Assessing the Potential for Potable Water Savings in the Residential Sector of a City: A Case Study of Joinville City. Water 2019, 11, 2074.

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