Developing Strategy for Water Conflict Management and Transformation at Euphrates–Tigris Basin
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Global Factsheet
2.2. Region of Interest
3.1. Water Impact
3.2. Core of Challenges
3.2.1. Limitation of International Law
3.2.2. Identifying the River/s and Basin
3.2.3. Water Allocation
3.2.4. Hydropolitical Influence
- Stage 1: The early investigations for the natural resources and the first industrial revolution in the 1760s, where the nations were looking for raw materials.
- Stage 2: Over time, it has been realized that more manpower is needed to maintain the investigation/extracting of natural resources.
- Stage 3: Emerging demand for technology and experts that would significantly save time, effort and cost.
- Stage 4: No matter how sufficient the manpower one has or the advanced technology one owns, absence of good management for the chain could damage the system severely; therefore, literature that focuses on resource and supply chain management has significantly increased.
- Stage 5: Even when a solid management system is conducted, without good governance and sophisticated policies, it would likely collapse. Hence, it has been recognized that decision-makers will play a crucial role here in maintaining the entire system. Currently many research studies supported proper governance and policies. This stage is located on the top of the pyramid system to ensure the smooth workflow and mitigate the consequences because the impact of failure at this stage is lethal.
3.2.5. Negotiation Level
- Multilateral players and multi-layered challenges for the ETB.
- A century of arguing over water allocation and sovereignty.
- The tangible bargaining power along with the dynamic political environment of the region.
- The basin segmentation where Turkey is the ultimate upstream country and Syria along with Iraq as downstream nations, but at the same time, Iraq is considered as a downstream nation for Syria; also, Iraq is considered the end-user for Euphrates after flowing from Turkey crossing Syrian territories.
- The mixed negotiation environment between the riparian countries where national security and political agendas meet with socio-economic challenges, giving multi-dimensional challenges for any possible agreement.
3.3. Stages of Transformation Management
- Negotiation: The development of this phase was initially built and described by Jay Rothman in 1989 as ARI, standing for: adversarial, reflexive, and integrative; in 1997, the action stage was added to the end with the four stages representing the transformation to become ARIA.
- Claiming: The development was done by Wolf in 1999 by deliberations and described 145 treaties to have the RNBE, standing for: rights, needs, benefits and equity.
- Collaboration: The building skills TSCC was developed by Kaufman in 2002, standing for: trust, skill, consensus and capacity.
- Geographic scope: The reflection of the geographic scope was implemented by Wolf in 2008 by modelling a fictional basin, the so-called Sandus River basin; the interacting example shows how the region has been subsequently developed along with the other above three phases, and the behavior of the geographic scope is reflected and shaped by the negotiation stages, where NWBR stands for nations, watershed, benefit-shed and at the best end with region.
3.4. The Role of Incentives
3.4.1. Regional Security
- A trigger for practical collaboration in terms of economic exchange between the riparian countries. The successful economic system will build ties between the three nations and practical commitments that could be used as a springboard for strategic partnership in different levels including water management.
- The revenue of the free zones is suggested to be shared by the riparian countries, and can be used to finance the respective national and regional projects to improve the health of the shared ETB and the ecosystems that nourish the region and provide the basis of its economies.
- The basis for building a friendly environment and special economic zones that would attract the international investment community.
3.4.3. Scientific Joint Projects
- Knowing in-depth and from different angles the value of natural resources in the region.
- It is a national demand to know the strengths and weaknesses and to better understand the links between the riparian economies and ecosystems, so as to best invest the resources.
- Having reliable and trusted data and records based on wide stakeholder participation to ensure a high level of transparency.
- Developing scientific partnership and building an academic capacity; by this a strong team would be created—a team which might be the core to establish a natural resource institute for peace in the region for the future.
3.5. Developing International Strategy
Conflicts of Interest
- Carkoglu, A.; Eder, M. Domestic concerns and the water conflict over the Euphrates-Tigris river basin. Middle East. Stud. 2001, 37, 41–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- El-Fadel, M.; El Sayegh, Y.; Abou Ibrahim, A.; Jamali, D.; El-Fadl, K. The EuphratesœTigris Basin: A Case Study in Surface Water Conflict Resolution. J. Nat. Resour. Life Sci. Educ. 2002, 31, 99–110. [Google Scholar]
- Kibaroğlu, A. Water for Sustainable Development in the Euphrates-Tigris River Basin. Middle East Technical University Department, 2004. Available online: https://www.iraqicivilsociety.org//wp-content/uploads/2013/02/waterforsustainableAKibaroglu.pdf (accessed on 28 September 2019).
- Daoudy, M. Benefit-sharing as a tool of conflict transformation: Applying the Inter-SEDE model to the Euphrates and Tigris river basins. Econ. Peace Secur. J. 2007, 2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Daoudy, M. Asymmetric power: Negotiating water in the Euphrates and Tigris. Int. Negot. 2009, 14, 361–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harris, L.M.; Alatout, S. Negotiating hydro-scales, forging states: Comparison of the upper Tigris/Euphrates and Jordan River basins. Political Geogr. 2010, 29, 148–156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kibaroglu, A.; Scheumann, W. Euphrates-Tigris Rivers System: Political Rapprochement and Transboundary Water Cooperation; Turkey’s water policy; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2011; pp. 277–299. [Google Scholar]
- Al, O.; Jawad, A.H.M.; Al-Khateeb, M. The challenges of water sustainability in Iraq. Eng. Technol. J. Part A Eng. 2013, 31, 828–840. [Google Scholar]
- Hommes, L.; Boelens, R.; Maat, H. Contested hydrosocial territories and disputed water governance: Struggles and competing claims over the Ilisu Dam development in southeastern Turkey. Geoforum 2016, 71, 9–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Conker, A. The power struggle in the layer of transnational hydropolitics: The case of the Ilisu dam project. Eurasian J. Soc. Sci. 2016, 4, 14–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Conker, A. An Enhanced Notion of Power for Inter-State and Transnational Hydropolitics: An Analysis of Turkish-Syrian Water Relations and the Ilısu Dam Conflict between the Opponents and Proponents of the Dam. Ph.D. Thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Lossow, T.V. Water as Weapon: IS on the Euphrates and Tigris: The Systematic Instrumentalisation of Water Entails Conflicting IS Objectives. 2016, Volume 8. Available online: https://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/comments/2016C03_lsw.pdf (accessed on 28 September 2019).
- Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J. Transboundary water interaction II: The influence of ‘soft’ power. Int. Environ. Agreem. Politics Law Econ. 2011, 11, 159–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hussein, H.; Menga, F.; Greco, F. Monitoring transboundary water cooperation in SDG 6.5. 2: How a critical hydropolitics approach can spot inequitable outcomes. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3640. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wahlstrom, M.; Guha-Sapir, D. The Human Cost of Weather-Related Disasters 1995–2015; UNISDR: Geneva, Switzerland, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Water & Poverty, an Issue of Life & Livelihoods, Water Scarcity. 2013. Available online: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/issues/scarcity.html (accessed on 28 September 2019).
- World Water Assessment Programme (United Nations) and UN-Water. Water in a Changing World; Earthscan: London, UK, 2009; Volume 1. [Google Scholar]
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017: Building Resilience for Peace and Food Security; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Gleeson, T.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.; van Beek, L.P. Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint. Nature 2012, 488, 197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Unicef. Advancing WASH in Schools Monitoring; United Nations Childrens Fund: New York, NY, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Wasserbauten, A. Landwirtschaftliche Wasserbauten im Kernland Assyriens Zwischen Der 2. Hälfte Des 2. Und 1. Hälfte Des 1. Jahrtausends v. Chr. 2000. Available online: https://www.amazon.com/Assyrische-Wasserbauten-Landwirtschaftliche-Jahrtausends-Forschungen/dp/3805326394 (accessed on 28 September 2019).
- Priscoli, D.J.; Wolf, T.A. Managing and Transforming Water Conflicts; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Al-Muqdadi, S.W.; Omer, M.F.; Abo, R.; Naghshineh, A. Dispute over Water Resource Management Iraq and Turkey. J. Environ. Prot. 2016, 7, 1096–1103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wilson, R. Water-Shortage Crisis Escalating in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin. Future Directions International. 2012. Available online: http://futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/FDI_Strategic_Analysis_Paper_-_28_August_2012(1).pdf (accessed on 13 December 2018).
- United Nation. Treaty of Friendship and Neighbourly Relations between Iraq and Turkey, Collection of Treaties. No. 1946. Volume 580, pp. 281–331. Available online: http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/documents/regionaldocs/Iraq-Turkey-Friendship_1946.pdf (accessed on 30 August 2019).
- Bari, Z. Syrian-Iraqi dispute over the Euphrates waters. Int. Stud. 1977, 16, 227–244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Drysdale, A. Ba’th v. Ba’th: The Conflict between Syria and Iraq, 1968–1989, by Eberhard Kienle (Book Review). Middle East J. 1992, 46, 690. [Google Scholar]
- Jongerden, J. Dams and politics in Turkey: utilizing water, developing conflict. Middle East Policy 2010, 17, 137–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Büşra, K. 2018, EU’s Turkey Decision More Challenging with Lisbon Treaty—Analysis, Ahval News. Available online: https://ahvalnews.com/eu-turkey/eus-turkey-decision-more-challenging-lisbon-treaty-analysis (accessed on 19 June 2018).
- Turkey Foreign Policy and Government Guide, 2nd ed.; International Business Publications: USA, 2009; 300p, Available online: https://www.amazon.com/Turkey-Foreign-Policy-Government-Guide/dp/0739762826 (accessed on 28 September 2019).
- Yuksel, I. Water development for hydroelectric in southeastern Anatolia project (GAP) in Turkey. Renew. Energy 2012, 39, 17–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yuksel, I. South-eastern Anatolia Project (GAP) factor and energy management in Turkey. Energy Rep. 2015, 1, 151–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- South-Eastern Anatolia Project GAP. Official Website. 2018. Available online: http://www.gap.gov.tr/en/upload/dosyalar/files/Statistical_Data/POPULATION.pdf (accessed on 31 July 2019).
- Mutlu, S. Population of Turkey by ethnic groups and provinces. New Perspect. Turk. 1995, 12, 33–60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duboz, R.; Echaubard, P.; Promburom, P.; Kilvington, M.; Ross, H.; Allen, W.; Ward, J.; Deffuant, G.; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M.; Binot, A. Systems thinking in practice: Participatory modeling as a foundation for integrated approaches to health. Front. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bacharach, S.B. Negotiation Skills Course|Cornell University; Cornell University: Ithaca, NY, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Fisher, R.; Ury, W.L.; Patton, B. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving in; Penguin: London, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Bacharach, S.B.; Lawler, E.J. Bargaining: Power, Tactics and Outcomes; Jossey-Bass Inc.: San Francisco, CA, USA, 1981. [Google Scholar]
- Wolf, A.T. Healing the enlightenment rift: Rationality, spirituality and shared waters. J. Int. Aff. 2008, 51–73. [Google Scholar]
- UNDP. Report. 2018. Available online: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Climate%20and%20Disaster%20Resilience/Climate%20Change/Arab-States-CCA.pdf (accessed on 26 October.2018).
- United Nation. General Assembly 28 Session, Resolution 3129 Decl.2 and 3, Cooperation in the Field of Environment Concerning Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States; United Nation: New York, NY, USA, 1973. [Google Scholar]
- Van Veenen, J. Dealing with Miscommunication, Distrust, and Emotions in Online Dispute Resolution. 2010. Available online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1626212 (accessed on 28 September 2019).
- Barsness, J.A. US Political Transition Policy and Post-2003 Violence in Iraq. Ph.D. Thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Kelly, M.J. The tricky nature of proving genocide against Saddam Hussein before the Iraqi Special Tribunal. Cornell Int’l LJ 2005, 38, 983. [Google Scholar]
- Richardson, C.J.; Reiss, P.; Hussain, N.A.; Alwash, A.J.; Pool, D.J. The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq. Science 2005, 307, 1307–1311. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kelley, J.R.; Wakeley, L.D.; Broadfoot, S.W.; Pearson, M.L.; McGrath, C.A.; McGill, T.E.; Jorgeson, J.D.; Talbot, C.A. Geologic Setting of Mosul Dam and Its Engineering Implications (No. ERDC-TR-07-10); Engineer Research and Development Center: Vicksburg, MS, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Milner, A. Mosul Dam: Why the battle for water matters in Iraq. BBC News 2014, 18. Available online: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28772478 (accessed on 29 September 2019).
- Riley, G.Z. The Last Free River of Mesopotamia. Ph.D. Thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Republic of Iraq. Iraqi Constitution. Article 110 and Article 114; 2005. Available online: http://www.iraqinationality.gov.iq/attach/iraqi_constitution.pdf (accessed on 05 May 2016).
- BBC. Interview Masoud Barazani. 2017. Available online: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-41189619 (accessed on 30 August 2018).
- Conker, A.; Hussein, H. Hydraulic Mission at Home, Hydraulic Mission abroad? Examining Turkey’s Regional ‘Pax-Aquarum’and Its Limits. Sustainability 2019, 11, 228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Green, E.A. Hydropolitics in the Middle East and US Policy; Naval War College: Newport, RI, USA, 1993. [Google Scholar]
- Hussein, H. Yarmouk, Jordan, and Disi basins: Examining the impact of the discourse of water scarcity in Jordan on transboundary water governance. Mediterr. Politics 2019, 24, 269–289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hussein, H. Whose ‘reality’? Discourses and hydropolitics along the Yarmouk River. Contemp. Levant 2017, 2, 103–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNESCO. Marshland-Iraq. 2016. Available online: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1481 (accessed on 13 January 2017).
- Dailysabah. 2019. Available online: https://www.dailysabah.com/economy/2019/06/21/ankara-eager-to-maximize-economic-ties-with-baghdad-in-all-areas (accessed on 15 July 2017).
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Al-Muqdadi, S.W.H. Developing Strategy for Water Conflict Management and Transformation at Euphrates–Tigris Basin. Water 2019, 11, 2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102037
Al-Muqdadi SWH. Developing Strategy for Water Conflict Management and Transformation at Euphrates–Tigris Basin. Water. 2019; 11(10):2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102037Chicago/Turabian Style
Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W. H. 2019. "Developing Strategy for Water Conflict Management and Transformation at Euphrates–Tigris Basin" Water 11, no. 10: 2037. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102037