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Correction: Li, J.; et al. The Impact of Lake Water Quality on the Performance of Mature Artificial Recharge Ponds. Water 2019, 11, 1991
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Correction published on 16 June 2020, see Water 2020, 12(6), 1713.
Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Lake Water Quality on the Performance of Mature Artificial Recharge Ponds

1
Division of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, John Ericssons Väg 1, V-Hus, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
2
Sweden Water Research AB, Ideon Science Park, Scheelevägen 15, 223 70 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101991
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Treatment Optimization: Challenges and Innovations)
Artificial groundwater recharge is commonly used for drinking water supply. The resulting water quality is highly dependent on the raw water quality. In many cases, pretreatment is required. Pretreatment improves the drinking water quality, although how and to what extent it affects the subsequent pond water quality and infiltration process, is still unknown. We evaluated two treatment systems by applying different pretreatment methods for raw water from a eutrophic and temperate lake. An artificial recharge pond was divided into two parts, where one received raw water, only filtered through a microscreen with 500 µm pores (control treatment), while the other part received pretreated lake water using chemical flocculation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl) combined with sand filtration, i.e., continuous contact filtration (contact filter treatment). Water quality factors such as cyanobacterial biomass, microcystin, as well as organic matter and nutrients were measured in both treatment processes. Microcystin condition was screened by an immunoassay and a few selected samples were examined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) which is a chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry. Results showed that cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin after the contact filter treatment were significantly different from the control treatment and also significantly different in the pond water. In addition, with contact filter treatment, total phosphorus (TP) and organic matter removal were significantly improved in the end water, TP was reduced by 96% (<20 µg/L) and the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced by 66% instead of 55% (TOC content around 2.1 mg/L instead of 3.0 mg/L). This full-scale onsite experiment demonstrated effective pretreatment would benefit a more stable water quality system, with less variance and lower microcystin risk. From a broader drinking water management perspective, the presented method is promising for reducing cyanotoxin risk, as well as TP and TOC, which are all predicted to increase with global warming and extreme weather. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; pretreatment; contact filtration; infiltration ponds; nutrients removal; TP; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxin; microcystin-LR equivalent; eutrophic lakes; TOC; UPLC–MS/MS groundwater; pretreatment; contact filtration; infiltration ponds; nutrients removal; TP; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxin; microcystin-LR equivalent; eutrophic lakes; TOC; UPLC–MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Hägg, K.; Persson, K.M. The Impact of Lake Water Quality on the Performance of Mature Artificial Recharge Ponds. Water 2019, 11, 1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101991

AMA Style

Li J, Hägg K, Persson KM. The Impact of Lake Water Quality on the Performance of Mature Artificial Recharge Ponds. Water. 2019; 11(10):1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101991

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Jing; Hägg, Kristofer; Persson, Kenneth M. 2019. "The Impact of Lake Water Quality on the Performance of Mature Artificial Recharge Ponds" Water 11, no. 10: 1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101991

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