Next Article in Journal
At-Site Assessment of a Regional Design Criterium for Water-Demand Peak Factor Evaluation
Next Article in Special Issue
Assimilation of Synthetic SWOT River Depths in a Regional Hydrometeorological Model
Previous Article in Journal
Spatial and Temporal Variability in Hydrological Responses of the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Estimates in the Yellow River Basin against the Water Balance Method
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2019, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010023

Variability of Arctic Sea Ice (1979–2016)

1
College of Information Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing and Analyses of Climate Variability)
  |  
PDF [3087 KB, uploaded 25 December 2018]
  |  

Abstract

This study is based on the daily sea ice concentration data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Boulder, CO, USA) from 1979 to 2016. The Arctic sea ice is analyzed from the total sea ice area, first year ice extent, multiyear ice area, and the variability of sea ice concentration in different ranges. The results show that the total sea ice area decreased by 0.0453 × 106 km2·year−1 (−0.55%/year) between 1979 and 2016, and the variability of the sea ice area from 1997 to 2016 is significantly larger than that from 1979 to 1996. The first-year ice extent increased by 0.0199 × 106 km2·year−1 (0.36%/year) from 1997 to 2016. The multiyear ice area decreased by 0.0711 × 106 km2·year−1 (−0.66%/year) from 1979 to 2016, of which in the last 20 years is about 30.8% less than in 1979–1996. In terms of concentration, we have focused on comparing 1979–1996 and 1997–2016 in different ranges. Sea ice concentration between 0.9–1 accounted for about 39.57% from 1979 to 1996, while from 1997–2016, it accounted for only 27.75%. However, the sea ice of concentration between 0.15–0.4 exhibits no significant trend changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: total sea ice area; first year sea ice area; multi-year ice area; sea ice concentration total sea ice area; first year sea ice area; multi-year ice area; sea ice concentration
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, Z.; Wang, X. Variability of Arctic Sea Ice (1979–2016). Water 2019, 11, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top