The Impact of Multiple Typhoons on Severe Floods in the Mid-Latitude Region (Hokkaido)
2.1. Target Site
2.2. Integrated Flood Analysis System
2.3. Data Inputs
2.4. Simulation Preparations
2.5. Indicators for Model Validation
3.1. Hydrological Model Validation
3.2. Effect of the Preceding Multiple Typhoons
3.3. Future Flood Situation under Global Warning
- The water stage peaks for most gage stations during Period II were reduced by 4–24% when the impact of the preceding typhoons was not considered (Case 2) because the water capacity of the soil was not full over the watershed before the fourth typhoon.
- Most future peaks (Case 3) were 13–22% higher than those in Case 1 under the effect of a 10% higher precipitation because the maximum difference between the water capacities of the soil in Case 1 and Case 3 was 10–20%.
- The peaks and peak times at Gage 2 in Case 2 and Case 3 were significantly different from those of the other stations. These results suggest that adaptive flood control corresponding to the inflow in Tokachi Dam as well as the dam capacity were important factors that reduced flood risk.
Conflicts of Interest
|Surface Tank||Groundwater Tank||River Tank|
|Infiltration capacity (, m/s)||1 × 10−8–5 × 10−6||‒||‒|
|Maximum height (, m)||0.001–0.1||‒||‒|
|Height where intermediate outflow appears (, m)||0.0005–0.01||‒||‒|
|Height where infiltration appears (, m)||0.0001–0.005||‒||‒|
|Surface roughness coefficient (, s/m1/3)||0.1–2.0||‒||‒|
|Coefficient of intermediate outflow ()||0.5–0.9||‒||‒|
|Coefficient of slow intermediate outflow (, 1/(ms)1/2)||‒||0.011||‒|
|Coefficient of base outflow (, 1/s)||‒||3.5 × 10−8||‒|
|Height where slow intermediate outflow appears (, m)||‒||2.0||‒|
|Manning roughness coefficient of river (, s/m1/3)||‒||‒||0.035|
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|Asian Typhoon Name||Date and Time of Landing/Approach (August 2016) 1||Minimum Central Pressure (hPa) 1||Maximum Wind Speed (m/s) 1||Accumulated Precipitation (mm) 2|
|Chanthu||17, 17:00||980||30||197 (48 h)|
|Kompasu||21, 23:00||1002||18||183 (48 h)|
|Mindulle||23, 06:00||992||25||103 (24 h)|
|Lionrock||30, 17:00||965||35||352 (72 h)|
|Dam Name||Location||Catchment Area (km2)||Capacity (million m3)||Length (m)||Height (m)||Surface Area (km2)|
|Tokachi||43.240° N, 142.939° E||592.0||112.0||443.0||84.3||4.2|
|Satsunai River||42.588° N, 142.923° E||117.7||54.0||300.0||114.0||1.7|
|Number||Station Name||Location||Rp||NS||MAE (m)||rMAE * (%)||Remarks|
|1||Nishibetsu||43.323° N, 142.943° E|
|0.74||0.78||0.27||8.6||Gage stopped after 23 August, 9:00.|
|2||Kyohei Bridge||43.068° N, 142.926° E|
|3||Memurobuto||42.931° N, 143.047° E|
|4||Obihiro||42.934° N, 143.203° E|
|0.77||0.74||0.47||7.4||Near Obihiro City|
|5||Tokachichuoh Bridge||42.927° N, 143.291° E|
|6||Moiwa||42.808° N, 143.512° E|
|7||Bisei Bridge||42.923° N, 143.066° E|
|8||Higashisanjyo||42.933° N, 143.209° E|
|9||Rrutanjyoryu||42.611° N, 142.870° E|
|0.75||0.83||0.13||5.6||Gage stopped after 30 August, 20:00.|
|10||Dainiohkawa Bridge||42.798° N, 143.157° E|
|11||Totta Bridge||42.699° N, 143.058° E|
|0.73||0.73||0.17||8.0||Gage stopped after 31 August, 2:00.|
|12||Yamuwakka||42.910° N, 143.356° E|
|13||Otofuke||43.008° N, 143.200° E|
|14||Asahi Bridge||42.947° N, 143.270° E|
|15||Azuma Bridge||43.094° N, 143.516° E|
|16||Toshibetsu||42.931° N, 143.443° E|
|17||Todaiichigo Bridge||42.920° N, 143.476° E|
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Kimura, N.; Kiri, H.; Kitagawa, I. The Impact of Multiple Typhoons on Severe Floods in the Mid-Latitude Region (Hokkaido). Water 2018, 10, 843. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070843
Kimura N, Kiri H, Kitagawa I. The Impact of Multiple Typhoons on Severe Floods in the Mid-Latitude Region (Hokkaido). Water. 2018; 10(7):843. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070843Chicago/Turabian Style
Kimura, Nobuaki, Hirohide Kiri, and Iwao Kitagawa. 2018. "The Impact of Multiple Typhoons on Severe Floods in the Mid-Latitude Region (Hokkaido)" Water 10, no. 7: 843. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070843